Nation’s Character Education Based on the Social Capital Theory

  •  Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrum    


Multi-dimensional crisis faced by a country could weaken national character. The crisis in national character can deteriorate the social and cultural identity of a country, while there is identity that is necessary to maintain the existence of the country in the era of globalization. One of the factors that influence human nature is a weakened role of social capital. This study aims to describe the elements of social capital that is owned by the school, and the role of social capital in character education. The population of this study is the schools in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Sample were recruited from among teachers and principals from 17 elementary schools, 18 lower secondary schools and 16 high schools. The criteria for selection of schools are based on various levels of academic achievement. The data are collected from in-depth interviews and a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions administered on the principals and teachers. The questions used are adapted from a questionnaire on social capital measure written by the World Bank. The steps taken in the process of analyzing qualitative research is data collection, data reduction, data display, conclusion, and data validation. The results of studies have concluded that school social capital and tried to strengthen elements such as (a) participation and social networks, (b) reciprocity, (c) trust, (d) social norms, (e) social value, and (f ) proactive action. It was found that elements of the social capital are needed to support character education and to rebuild the country's power to face global challenges. Social capital as a collective force should be reconsidered as a socio-cultural force that strengthens the nation character. The elements of social capital play an important role in the process of character education in the family, school, and community. This can build the character of 'bridging social capital in a synergistic way, the goals and functions of character education can be obtained optimally.

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