Tumu Crisis and the Weakness of the Military System of Ming Dynasty

  •  Longfei Feng    


In the year of 1449, Ming lost the battle against the Oirats in Tumu Bao due to its poor military system. In this article, the history of the Tumu Crisis and the military system of Ming dynasty were systematically studied. The article, First of all, analyzed the weakness of the military system of Ming from five aspects, and concluded that the main problems were the lower social statue of the army and a serial unrealistic regulation. Following that, the article explained how the military system caused the Tumu Crisis. It is found that the low quality of the military personnel caused by the army family system, the inefficient supply system, the war-weary attitude and the poor leadership were the main reasons for losing the battle.

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