What Factors Predict Exposure to Caste, Political and Religious Violence in India? A Cross – Sectional Survey of 1000 Indian Men

  •  Alexander Broom    
  •  David Sibbritt    
  •  K. R. Nayar    
  •  Pamela Nilan    
  •  Emma Kirby    


Background: Caste, political and religious violence impact considerably on the wellbeing of communities and individuals in India, where violence represents a significant problem. Given the lack of existing work on the experiences of Indian men, particularly those in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, this study aimed to provide baseline data on the Indian men’s experiences of caste, political and religious violence in order to identify and examine the predictors of this violence.
Methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 1000 adult men from Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat over a two-month period in late 2009. The respondents were selected randomly from 10 cities or towns within these two provinces.
Results: The prevalence of experiences of caste violence was 90.9% (32.7% often and 43.8% sometimes), political violence was 94.3% (47.9% often 31.6% sometimes), and religious violence was 99.7% (24.3% often and 51.8% sometimes). The results indicate that age, income, religion, education and region are important predictors of regular exposure to caste, political and religious violence.
Conclusions: The findings of this study offer timely insight into the factors which predict male exposure to caste, political and religious violence. The results of the survey have implications for policy and practice in terms of directing support towards individuals and communities at most risk of exposure to these forms of violence.

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