Wave Functions for the Electron and Positron

  •  Declan Traill    


The Wave/Particle duality of particles in Physics is well known. Particles have properties that uniquely characterize them from one another, such as mass, charge and spin. Charged particles have associated Electric and Magnetic fields. Also, every moving particle has a De Broglie wavelength determined by its mass and velocity. This paper shows that all of these properties of a particle can be derived from a single wave function equation for that particle. Wave functions for the Electron and the Positron are presented and principles are provided that can be used to calculate the wave functions of all the fundamental particles in Physics. Fundamental particles such as electrons and positrons are considered to be point particles in the Standard Model of Physics and not considered to have a structure. This paper demonstrates that they do indeed have structure and that this structure extends into the space around the particle’s center (in fact, they have infinite extent), but with rapidly diminishing energy density with the distance from that center. The particles are formed from Electromagnetic standing waves, which are stable solutions to the Schrödinger and Classical wave equations. This stable structure therefore accounts for both the wave and particle nature of these particles. In fact, all of their properties such as mass, spin and electric charge, can be accounted for from this structure. These particle properties appear to originate from a single point at the center of the wave function structure, in the same sort of way that the Shell theorem of gravity causes the gravity of a body to appear to all originate from a central point. This paper represents the first two fully characterized fundamental particles, with a complete description of their structure and properties, built up from the underlying Electromagnetic waves that comprise these and all fundamental particles.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1916-9639
  • ISSN(Online): 1916-9647
  • Started: 2009
  • Frequency: semiannual

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