Local and Regional Changes in Natural Complexes of the Chechen Republic Caused by Oil Production

  •  Umar Gayrabekov    


The purpose of this paper was to identify local and regional changes in natural complexes of the Chechen Republic due to long and intensive operation of the petro-complex in its area. Therefore, the author of this article, basing on the analysis of field study, mapping study, and statistical and library materials, assessed the impact of petro-complex facilities on the natural and anthropogenic environment of the Chechen Republic. As a result of the studies and processing materials of modern multi-zone chorometry in satellite images from "LANDSAT"-7, current environmental situation in the republic in the postwar period was assessed. At the same time, it was noted that ecologic and geochemical situation is characterized as rather stressful only in the areas where oil production facilities are located. Local pollution foci are mainly typical of the city of Grozny. Here, consolidated figures of pollution by geochemical assessment are many-fold higher than the maximum permissible norms (MPN) and indicate a critical and extreme environmental emergency. According to the results of the research, geo-ecologic zoning of the republic was made with highlighting landscape and ecologic zones and geo-ecologic regions that are characterized by uniformity of economic development and types of anthropogenic impact. The results of the research made it possible to:

Assess impact of the oil complex components on natural objects and elements of landscape structure in the republic;

Identify main patterns of chemical elements and organic compounds distribution in urban landscapes that are of technogeneous origin and indicate critical and emergency ecologic situation in the area in question;

Complete geo-ecologic zoning and territory mapping by the factors of dynamics and stability of natural and anthropogenic environment with regard to impact of the oil complex.

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