Predictive Mapping of Soil Properties for Precision Agriculture Using Geographic Information System (GIS) Based Geostatistics Models

  •  John Kingsley    
  •  Solomon Odafe Lawani    
  •  Ayito Okon Esther    
  •  Kebonye Michael Ndiye    
  •  Ogeh Joseph Sunday    
  •  Vít Penížek    


In precision Agriculture, geostatistical methods as a predictive tool have been extensively utilized. The approach estimates soil properties spatial variability and dependency. This study was carried out in Ovia north east Local Government Area of Edo State of Nigeria in order to map soil properties (Sand, Clay, pH, OC, P, N and CEC) and redict their spatial variability. Twenty-nine (29) soil samples were collected randomly from Typic Kandiudults soil type under three different land use, teak forest plantation, shrub, and arable farm. The soil samples were air-dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve before being analyzed for pH(CaCl2), SOC, Sand, Clay, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and CEC. Generated data were statistically and geostatistically computed to explain the spatial variability of soil properties. The traditional method of soil analysis and interpretation are tedious, time-consuming with escalating budgets thus geostatical approach. Available phosphorus yielded large variability with CV=57.08% followed by clay content with CV=49.03%. Spherical, Gaussian, Hole Effect model, Stable, Exponential and Circular models were fitted for all the soil parameters. The result revealed that soil pH, Sand content, TN and CEC were moderate spatially autocorrelated with nugget/sill value of 0.32, 0.21, 0.49 and 0.30 respectively.  SOC also gave a moderate spatially autocorrelated with nugget/sill value of 0.44. And Clay and Available phosphorus were strong spatially autocorrelated with nugget/sill value of 0.15 and 0.13 respectively. Cross-validation of the output maps using the semivariogram showed that the interpolation models are superior to assuming mean for any unsampled area. The output maps will help soil users within the area to proffer best management technology to improve crop, fiber and water production. 

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