High-Order Neural Networks are Equivalent to Ordinary Neural Networks

  •  Abdel Latif Abu Dalhoum    
  •  Mohammed Al-Rawi    


Equivalence of computational systems can assist in obtaining abstract systems, and thus enable better understanding of issues related their design and performance. For more than four decades, artificial neural networks have been used in many scientific applications to solve classification problems as well as other problems. Since the time of their introduction, multilayer feedforward neural network referred as Ordinary Neural Network (ONN), that contains only summation activation (Sigma) neurons, and multilayer feedforward High-order Neural Network (HONN), that contains Sigma neurons, and product activation (Pi) neurons, have been treated in the literature as different entities. In this work, we studied whether HONNs are mathematically equivalent to ONNs. We have proved that every HONN could be converted to some equivalent ONN. In most cases, one just needs to modify the neuronal transfer function of the Pi neuron to convert it to a Sigma neuron. The theorems that we have derived clearly show that the original HONN and its corresponding equivalent ONN would give exactly the same output, which means; they can both be used to perform exactly the same functionality. We also derived equivalence theorems for several other non-standard neural networks, for example, recurrent HONNs and HONNs with translated multiplicative neurons. This work rejects the hypothesis that HONNs and ONNs are different entities, a conclusion that might initiate a new research frontier in artificial neural network research.

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