Construction of Artificial Islands in Southern Coast of the Persian Gulf from the Viewpoint of International Environmental Law

  •  Karang Ghaffari    
  •  Tavakkol Habibzadeh    
  •  Mortaza Najafi Asfad    
  •  Reza Mousazadeh    


Among the rapid and rampant costal developments of Persian Gulf region, creating artificial islands is one of new-emerging and developing phenomena in this area. Extensive activities initiated by The United Arab Emirates and other countries of the southern coast of Persian Gulf to create such islands, have had widespread environmental consequences and have led to the criticism of environmentalists. International environmental law has complied comprehensive rules and regulations in order to protect the environment, in particular, protecting the marine environment. Numerous conventions have focused on the issue of marine environment protection, and have mentioned the obligations and responsibilities of states regarding the damages and pollutions to the environment caused by their developmental activities. Persian Gulf coastal states, which are mostly a member of these conventions, are obliged to observe the environmental obligations and regulations related to their widespread activities in the coasts of Persian Gulf, which often leads to drying the sea and land reclamation.

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