Political Development and the Influential and Distributive Crises

  •  Akbar Ghafoori    
  •  Esmail Ahmadi Kafrudi    


Political development theorists believe that political societies, in their development stages, subject to a series of quintuple crises (identity, legitimacy, participation, and influence, distributive). These crises are either in terms of increasing level of development in some communities toward the environment, or to the contrary, in terms of backward countries’ failure to cope with environmental changes. Countries, especially third world countries in transitions to political development, undergo crises, including the crisis of penetration and distributive, which in the absence of empowerment in overcoming these crises; the communities will have problems and anomalies. This article aims to analyze the penetration and distributive and to examine the role of these crises in the political development process.

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