Productive Word Knowledge Development and Its Relation to Informal Contact with English through Various Leisure Activities

  •  Hassan Alshumrani    


Much of the previous research that has provided evidence for the relationship between engagement in out-of-class activities and vocabulary outcomes has focused on receptive word gains. However, little research has attempted to explore this relationship with productive word knowledge. Additionally, the contribution of various gaming genres to the relationship is particularly underexplored. The present mixed-method study fills these lacunas by employing a productive vocabulary levels test, a questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews to explore the relationship between 35 different leisure activities that English as a foreign language (EFL) learners engage in outside the classroom and their productive vocabulary growth. The study’s findings revealed that although learners frequently engaged in different activities, they spent most of their free time gaming, which contributed the most to productive word knowledge learning. Regression analysis showed that two gaming genres, massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) and first-person shooters, significantly predicted productive knowledge of words. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that, in general, the participants had a positive perception of informal engagement with English activities outside formal learning contexts.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1923-869X
  • ISSN(Online): 1923-8703
  • Started: 2011
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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