Integrity and Corruption in the Health Sector in Jordan: The Perceptions of Leaders of Non-government Health Organizations (NGHOs)

  •  Musa Ajlouni    


Corruption is a complex social and economic phenomenon which does not only threaten equity, but also health outcomes. This study aims at identifying corruption practices in the health sector in Jordan, factors that promote these practices and policy directions to control them as perceived by leaders of non–government health care organizations (NGHOs). The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches. 24 NGHOs leaders participated in a one -day workshop and were divided into three sub-groups to address areas of corruption in the health sector in Jordan based on a conceptual model which addresses corruption according to the main actors, namely: regulators, providers, payers, patients and suppliers. The findings of the three sub-groups were put together by the researcher and were sent to the participants by email for validation and ranking.

The results showed that organizers’ corruption was mainly manifested in favoritism, seeking personal interest, failure to base decisions on evidence and accepting bribes from suppliers. Corruption among providers was perceived mainly in nepotism and favoritism among doctors, especially in malpractice cases, evasion of taxes and fees and overcharging patients. Corruption caused by suppliers was manifested in tax evasion, bribing and fraud. Corruption caused by patients was perceived in trying to get free care by under reporting their income, deceiving insurers to obtain benefits and stealing and vandalism. Corruption related to health insurers was manifested in tax evasion, incapacitating patients and delaying approvals of claims and unjustified deductions on patients’ bills. Causes of corruption and interventions to improve integrity in the health sector were also addressed by the participants.

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