Measuring Hofstede’s Five Cultural Dimensions at Individual Level and Its Application to Researchers in Tourists’ Behaviors

  •  Handayani Rinuastuti    
  •  Djumilah Hadiwidjojo    
  •  Fatchur Rohman    
  •  Nur Khusniyah    


Depth understanding in the influence of national cultural background towards the tourists’ behaviors and identifying the differences and similarities among the international tourism markets have nowadays become very fundamental compared to the past. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are perceived around the world as key indicators to differentiate within cultural groups, and this has been applied not only related to the values of works, but also common values and accepted as a universal cross-cultural. However, some criticisms towards Hofstede’s cultural have too much leveled. This article aims to describe some of the reasons to the needs of cultural measurement at the individual level, especially its application in the study tourists’ behaviors.

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