Evaluation of Heavy Metal in Soils From Enyimba Dumpsite in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria Using Contamination Factor and Geo-Accumulation Index
- Amadi Akobundu N.
- Nwankwoala H. O.
AbstractThe manner in which municipal wastes generated are disposed in most urban areas in Nigeria is worrisome. The upsurge in population density and its resultant increase in urbanization and industrialization and the amount of waste generated in Aba, are of great concern. The objective of this research is to evaluate the concentration of some heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of Enyimba dumpsite in Aba, Nigeria. Thirty soil samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for some heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method and multivariate statistical techniques. Twenty-five of the samples were obtained from the vicinity of the dumpsite while five samples are collected far away from the dumpsite to serve as control samples. The overall decreasing metal concentration in the dumpsite soil is: Cd > Co > Cu > Zn > As > Pb > Mn > Ni > Cr. A positive correlation exists between Cd and organic matter (r = 0.598). Geo-accumulation index and contamination factor showed a moderate contaminated with Cd only while the other metals are in their uncontaminated level. Factor analysis revealed four major components accounting for 78.82% of cumulative variance of the contamination: Cd, Cu, Co and organic matter; Pb, Zn and pH; Mn, As, clay + silt and finally Cr and Ni. From the above observations, it is evident that only Cd showed more pronounced level of pollution than any other metal. The need to replace open dumpsites with well designed sanitary landfills is advocated.
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