From Zheng He to Koxinga - The Development of the Armed Sea-merchant Group of Late Ming Dynasty and Their Effort to Defend the Sea-power

  •  Zilai Zeng    


This article aimed at the efforts that the armed sea-merchant groups made to defend the sea-power of China and their development in the late Ming dynasty. The basis of the study rely on the historical records at home and abroad.The study of this topic shows that early in the 17th century, Chinese sea-merchants had become a strong competitor in the struggle of sea-trade and sea-power in the eastern and southeastern Asia.Furthermore, the study shows that the sea-merchant groups of China already had a clear understanding of the importance to defend the sea-power, and they were familiar with using the economical and military ways to deal with the western competitors. Furthermore, their relationship with the government gradually changed to cooperation over time. The article finally contributes towards an improve understanding of the glorious deeds of ancient Chinese sea pioneers and provides new ideas of the modern sea-power strategies.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1916-9655
  • ISSN(Online): 1916-9663
  • Started: 2009
  • Frequency: semiannual

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