An Investigative Relationship between Efforts-Rewards Model and Job Stress in Private Educational Institutions: A Validation Study

Saif ur Rehman, Muhammad. Aslam Khan, Hasan Afzal


The aim of this study was to provide the reliability and validity of new four quadrant model of the 30-item efforts–rewards questionnaire and to analyze its association with job stress and employees turnover intention in a sample of private educational institutions. A self reported survey was conducted, in private educational institutions, among 180 teachers. Appropriate internal consistencies of the four scales: efforts, rewards, job stress and turnover intention, were obtained. Zero-order correlation and regressions analysis replicated the theoretically assumed structure of the efforts-reward model (ERM) construct in men and women collectively. Evidence of criterion validity was obtained from cross-correlations of the scales and from their linear, multiple and hierarchical regression analysis. Finally, all four scales were associated with a highly significant ratio of job stress, and the effect was strongest for the ERM ratio as predicted by fundamental theory. Based on the results of this study, the four quadrant version of the ERM, questionnaire is considered a reliable and valid instrument for measuring psychosocial stress at work environment. It is applicable to all services and manufacturing industries. The findings from this study strongly supported this theory of efforts and rewards. We found a high percentage of teachers with both job stress and dissatisfaction and an imbalance characterized by high effort and low reward in their professional life. This work environment obviously calls for preventive measures.

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