The Meanings of the Preposition “BY” in the IX-XIX Centuries with Their Azerbaijani Equivalents

Aliyeva Shalalah Anvar ghizi


The article deals with the meanings of the English preposition “by” in the IX-XIX centuries and their Azerbaijani equivalents. During that period the preposition “by” had more than 10 variants of writing.

From the IX to the XIX centuries the preposition “by” was used in 6 main meanings: the meanings were connected with position, motion (or action), time, mental proximity, circumstances (condition, manner), medium (or means). Each of these meanings of the preposition “by” included a lot of small meanings or sub-meanings.

Full Text:



English Language Teaching       ISSN 1916-4742 (Print)   ISSN  1916-4750 (Online)

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.