Effect of Sensor Mobility and Channel Fading on Wireless Sensor Network Clustering Algorithms

Ahmed H. Gabr, Sherif Keshk, Aliaa A. A. Youssif


Clustering is an effective topology approach in wireless sensor network, which can increase network lifetime and scalability. Either Node Mobility or Channel fading has a negative impact on various clustering protocol. In case of Node Mobility when all sensor nodes are mobile the current nearest cluster head may be the farthest one for the sensor node when message transmission phase starts. In the present research the received signal strength is used to estimate the sensor location. Consequently, channel fading affects the path loss between the nodes thus affecting the estimated distance between them. This paper introduces a new clustering protocol which is built on Adaptive Decentralized re-clustering protocol called E-ADRP (Enhanced Adaptive Decentralized re-clustering protocol). Simulations are performed to test the effect of node mobility using Random Walk Mobility model (RWM) on Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) and Enhanced Adaptive Decentralized re-clustering protocol (E-ADRP). The simulation results show that the applied mobility on LEACH affected the network lifetime and energy dissipation negatively while in contrast E-ADRP simulation results were much better. On the other side, Rayleigh channel model also was applied on LEACH and E-ADRP clustering algorithms. The simulation results show that network lifetime and energy dissipation at mobile nodes were nearly stable compared to static nodes in case of E-ADRP while in case of LEACH mobile nodes were negatively affected by rate up to 24% less than static nodes, at fading E-ADRP and LEACH were both negatively affected where E-ADRP was affected by rate up to 40% less than static nodes and LEACH was affected by rate up to 50% less than static nodes.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v5n1p20

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