### The New Cosmology Arising from the Quantum Pushing Gravity Interaction—The Case of Accelerating Universe

#### Abstract

In 2011 three astronomers were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics having focussed a correct method of measuring cosmic distances by observation of far Supernovae Ia. Assuming the 'lambda’CDM expanding model, they showed that part of the Universe was *accelerating*, contrary to the *original* General Relativity predictions. The acceleration was attributed to an Obscure energy linked to the cosmological constant L. This constasnt was formerly introduced by Einstein in the original G.R. equations to* empirically counterbalance* the gravitational force to the aim of describing the (known) static universe. After the Hubble’s discovery (1929) of galaxy redshifts, which launched the expanding universe, Einstein rejected L. This was the sign that he considered L a provisional parameter, not the expression of a new physical force. Nevertheless, this parameter is till today taken into account by cosmologists to fit their observations through the LCDM model. Something is not consequent in the history of the Gravitational theory. The “accelerated expansion” of the universe can be firmly established only through a *model independent* way. In fact the SNe distances calculated by LCDM expanding model resulted so large that part of the SNe exploded* before* the so called Big bang Age, in contrast with the bases of the expansion. The astronomers appear reluctant to claim this splashing result. Something in the Obscure energy is not convincing. Before knowing the astronomer’s work, I carried out a research about the *physical *inadequacy* *of General Relativity as *proper* *theory *of Gravitation, notwithstanding the great success in astronomical observations. The profound reason of this inconsistency is the *absence* of interaction-waves, contrarily to other fundamental Interactions considered in the Standard Model. From several decades the research attempted to improve this unsatisfactory situation trying to detect the so called gravitational waves coming from cosmic events, but no tangible results have been obtained yet. Actually, the gravitational-inertial waves *surely exist*, as well as the measured gravitational force. The wavelength I found is of the order of the Planck’s length, so adequate tools are necessary for detection. One year ago I published a comprehensive analysis which, recognising the inadequacy of the old *kinematic* basis of Special relativity, gave rise (Michelini, 2012) to a Relativistic Dynamics re-founded on the new *dynamical* basis of the Micro-quanta paradigm. The high flux f_{o} of micro-quanta filling the space originates, through the *mutual*-*shielding* between two particles/masses, the Quantum *Pushing* gravitational force, whereas at very short distances (<10^{-15}) the *same flux* f_{o} generates the Strong and Weak nuclear forces. Contrarily to the old Newton’s ideas, all these drawing forces *do not pull* the particles, but *push* them each other, thus giving rise to the process of Unification of forces. The present paper deals in particular with the Quantum Pushing Gravitation operating on large distances (cosmology), so that between two very distant masses the effect of the *mutual scattering* on the *interposed* micro-quanta is not negligible, giving rise to an attenuation factor on the gravitational constant. Quantum *Pushing* gravitation defines a variable G(*r*) = G exp*(–**S** _{o}*r

*)*showing that parts of Universe at cosmological distances? do not feel sensibly the gravitational force. Then the Universe results static, i.e.

*not expanding.*The

*observed*high Hubble’s redshifts depend on the interaction of photons that travelled

*across the micro-quanta*giving rise to the redshift

*z*(

*x*) = exp(

*x/L*

_{o}) –1. The SNe measuring method just discovered exponentially increasing redshifs. Trying to explain this fact, the redshfts were introduced in the LCDM

*expanding*model that produced the large distances resembling an

*accelerating*universe. Several SNe resulted to exist

*well before*the Big bang. Considering this contrast, which inhibits the expanding models, we introduced the observed SNe redshifts in the Static model, finding that the last SNa (

*z*= 1.91) explosion happened 15 Gys ago, a reasonable result. Attributing the Hubble’s redshift to the Doppler appears no longer necessary. The

*static*universe, immersed within the micro-quanta, is obviously

*evolving*because the synthesis of heavy nuclei always occurs within the star cores. No

*arbitrary*constant L has to be introduced in the Static model since the

*erroneous*concept of “gravitational” mass has been previously eliminated through the Quantum Pushing gravity. The main proof of the Static model is the

*quantitative recognition*that the observed Cosmic Microwave Background is due to redshifted photons emitted–with the characteristic black body spectrum–from all stars of the universe.

#### Full Text:

PDFDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5p67

Applied Physics Research ISSN 1916-9639 (Print) ISSN 1916-9647 (Online)

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