The VISHMOD Methodology with Hydrochemical Modeling in Intermountain (Karstic) Aquifers: Case of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

Janete Moran-Ramirez, Jose Alfredo Ramos-Leal


Hydrogeochemistry can be studied qualitatively using graphics such as scatter plots and Piper, Durov, and Schoeller diagrams, among others, and quantitatively by applying mass balance mixing models. The VISHMOD methodology (Virtual Samples in Hydrochemical Modeling) combines these two forms of hydrogeochemical characterizations. It is performed by applying hydrogeochemical modeling to virtual samples. This method makes standardization and control possible in order to demonstrate the extent to which a model is able to reproduce field measurements. Therefore, hydrogeochemical models of hydrogeological systems must be calibrated. This methodology was applied to carbonate and homogeneous media in the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. Using the VISHMOD methodology in this region resulted in the classification of the water type as calcium bicarbonate (Ca-HCO3), representing a ternary mixture in which 45.5% was associated with local flow, 38.5% to intermediate flow and 16.5% to water-rock interaction. The main mineral phases were saturated calcite and sub-saturated dolomite, both from limestone contained in the Tamaulipas Formation.

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Journal of Geography and Geology   ISSN 1916-9779 (Print)   ISSN 1916-9787 (Online)  Email:

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