Quality Evaluation of River Chanchaga Using Metal Pollution Index and Principal Component Analysis

A. N. Amadi, J. Yisa, I. C. Ogbonnaya, M. A. Dan-Hassan, J. O. Jacob, Y. B. Alkali


In this study, metal pollution index (MPI) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques were applied to water quality data sets obtained from River Chanchaga, Minna, North-central Nigeria, to obtain the spatial and temporal changes in the river quality. Results show that the indices which changed the quality of the river water consist of natural (weathering and bedrock dissolution) and anthropogenic activities such as mining, agriculture, domestic and industrial wastes within its catchment. The result of the MPI indicates that the river is slightly affected with respect to heavy metal pollution, which can be attributed the gold mineralization and mining along the river course. Five principal factors were generated when the data was subjected to PCA and they correspond to five possible point source of pollution to the river. Factors 1 and 2 are naturally induced while factors 3, 4 and 5 are due to anthropogenic interference in the hydrological cycle. Although, the river quality does not pose any serious threat to human health presently, the various anthropogenic activities domiciled at the downstream should discontinue, in order restore the river water quality. The people living close to the river should adopt a good sanitary habit by not dumping waste into the river henceforth. Boiling of the water before consumption is advocated.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jgg.v4n2p13

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