Social Organization and Mating System of Macaca Fascicularis (Long Tailed Macaques)

Shahrul Anuar, Karim ullah


Long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are organized into multi-male/multi-female groups have a strong
hierarchical ties with each others. The data collected in present study was random and continuous sampling data.
It was depicted from present study that the alpha male exhibit significant dominance for the behaviour of
fighting (p<0.05), eating (p<0.05) and grooming (received) (p<0.05). Other behaviours grooming (given),
attacking and protection were observed higher in beta male. Furthermore, the male and female social
relationships were also assessed and compared to the other members of the group. The behaviors of males was
found significant for the aggression (p<0.028), approach (p<0.002) and reconciliation (p<0.01), while observed
significant difference in the behavior of grooming (p<0.012), biting (p<0.016), sex (p<0.031), submission
(p<0.004) and baby care (p<0.01) in females respectively. It is concluded that the Macaca fascicularis bound in
hierarchical system and mating structure showed that the male and female mate with multiple partners
suggesting that mating is composed on polyandry and polygamy.

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International Journal of Biology   ISSN 1916-9671(Print)   ISSN 1916-968X  (Online)   Email:

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