On the Integrated Usage of Atomic and Nuclear Approaches for Detecting Potentially Hazardous Elements

Ashraf S Elkady, Walaa M Abdel-Aziz, Ibrahim I Bashter


In this work, we report on the usage of different atomic and nuclear approaches for detecting hazardous elements in some commercially available eye cosmetics. Recent studies showed that some eye cosmetics (e.g. eye-liners like kohl) might have hazardous and toxic elements in its elemental composition, which would harmfully impact on the environment and health of its users. In order to obtain accurate information on the elemental content of some natural and synthetic eye-liners that are commercially available in the Egyptian markets and pharmacies, we have applied Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Atomic Absorption Mass Spectroscopy (AA-MS), Elemental Analyzer (EA), and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Heavy and toxic elements, as well as short and long lived radionuclides concentration values were identified in the studied samples. The results indicate that among the three studied samples, the highest lead containing sample is the natural unprocessed one of African source; while the most abundant element in the synthetic samples made in France and USA is Carbon. The present study raises a concern about the medical and environmental implications of using eye-liners, and emphasizes the vital role played by atomic and nuclear approaches in detecting hazardous elements in such commercially available products.

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/eer.v3n2p224


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Energy and Environment Research   ISSN 1927-0569 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0577 (Online)  Email: eer@ccsenet.org

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ccsenet.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.