Effects of Multimedia Redundancy in History Learning among ‘Deep and Surface’ Students

Sii Ching Hii, Soon Fook Fong


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of redundant information in multimedia presentation in history learning. The two modes of multimedia presentation, namely multiple-channel presentation (text + graphics, pictures + redundancy audio, video and animation) and single-channel presentation (text + graphics + pictures) on history learning among deep and surface students were examined. The sample consisted of 240 Form One students from four Malaysian secondary schools. Findings of this study showed that students interacted with the MCP mode obtained significantly higher gain score compared to students interact with the SCP mode. Irrespective of the learning approaches, students using the MCP mode outperformed students using the SCP mode. Apparently, additional redundant information that are relevant to the contents within and across the visual and aural channels provide greater reinforcement in organizing and structuring information issuing in better learning. Results of this study suggest that cognitive load in multimedia-based learning can be minimized if adequate time is provided for comprehension and the pace of learning is under learner control.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v6n6p119

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