Cixi and Modernization of China

Zhan Zhang


Empress Dowager Cixi, birth mother of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Tongzhi, lived in the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century, and was the actual ruler of the Qing Dynasty from 1861 to 1908. Under her administration, her great support of Westernization during the earlier period promoted modernized revolution of Chinese society, whereas her objection to the political reform during the late period strangled the Hundred Days’ Reform and hindered all-around progress of the Chinese society. Cixi did not only belong to the Renovation Group, but also belonged to the Conservative Liner, and she was an extremely contradictory and complicated historical figure.

Full Text:



Copyright (c)

Asian Social Science   ISSN 1911-2017 (Print)   ISSN 1911-2025 (Online)    Email: 

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.