Communication Pattern and Conflict in Agricultural Extension

Z. Kartika Ekasari, S. Ali M. Saleh, Kamaruzaman Jusoff, Darmawan Salman, Akhsan Akhsan, Andi Kasirang, Muhammad Arsyad, Amrawaty A. Amidah, Letty Fudjaja


This paper deals with communication patterns and conflict in agricultural extension. A strong assumption is that, extension could be expected to enhance agricultural and rural development, but an appropriate communication pattern and conflict in extension remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are three-folds, namely (a) to identify the social processes among actors in implementation of social engineering-based extension and social learning-based extension, (b) to map the communication patterns in agricultural extension, and (iii) to analyze the conflicting functions in agricultural extension. This study uses a Comparative Case Studies Method by focusing on social engineering and social learning in agricultural extension, using a Purposive Sampling Technique. The sample consists of government oficial (including extension officer), prívate sector, researcher and farmer groups. The results show that (i) social process among actors in agricultural extension based on social engineering is more project-oriented (dissociative), while social process in social learning-based extension tends to be cooperation-oriented due to the same interest in achieving goal of programs, especially skill and knowledge improvement (associative), (ii) communication in social engineering-based extension is a linier pattern (top down), while communication in social learning-based extension is using a convergent (participatory) pattern, (iii) conflict in agricultural extension based on social engineering is generally latent (hidden) and will eventually explode and impede extension, impacting group unsolidarity, while in extension based on social learning, conflict generally are on the surface (manifest), and the accommodation is one way to solve. A major implication of these findings is the stepping up of agricultural extension (based on social learning process) which becomes a push factor towards independency group in finding new innovation. The research suggests that social learning-based extension should be developed as a potential way to sustain an important role of extension in agricultural and rural development.

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Asian Social Science   ISSN 1911-2017 (Print)   ISSN 1911-2025 (Online)

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