Pluralism, Vitality, and Transformability: A Case Study of Jining Religions in the Late Imperial and Republican Periods

Jinghao Sun


This article depicts the dynamic demonstrations of religions in late imperial and republican Jining. It argues with evidences that the open, tolerant and advanced urban circumstances and atmosphere nurtured the diversity and prosperity of formal religions in Jining in much of the Ming and Qing periods. It also argues that the same air and ethos enabled Jining to less difficultly adapt to the West-led modern epoch, with a notable result of welcoming Christianity, quite exceptional in hinterland China.

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Asian Culture and History   ISSN 1916-9655(Print)   ISSN 1916-9663 (Online)

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