enormous distances in the Universe, encourages one to formulate matter description that goes beyond the Standard Model.

Here we present the description of ordinary and novel (some as Dark Matter) particles through the bicubic equation

limiting velocity solutions, globally denoted as, c1, c2 and c3, (primary, secondary and tertiary). These solutions depend

on the congruent parameter z = 3

√

3mv2/2E which connect them to m, v, and E , respectively being particle mass,

velocity and energy. When the bicubic equation discriminant D and z satisfy D ≤ 0, z2 ≤ 1, the limiting velocities

describe ordinary particles (electron, neutrino, etc.) and when D ⪰ 0, z2 ⪰ 1 limiting velocities describe the novel (some

as Dark Matter), yet to be directly observed particles. At z = 1 ordinary particles with c1, c2 and c3 (primary, secondary

and tertiary) transit from, z2 ≤ 1 into novel (some as Dark Matter) patrticles, z2 ⪰ 1 with the same values at z = 1 for

novel particle limiting velocities Rc1, Rc2 and c3 (primary, secondary and tertiary).The ordinary tertiary particle limiting

velocity c3 and novel primary plus secondary particle limiting velocities Rc1 and Rc2 are convenient to be deduced from

maximum particle velocities. The velocity of the neutrino with v = c is a good example for c3 = c,while, with the

assumption that a novel particle maximum velocity is, say, v = c•, which leads to Rc1 and Rc2 = c• . Hopefully, it

may turn out that also c• = c. An example of a lethargic low energy novel particle appears to be a good candidate for

gravitational Dark Matter particle.]]>

We prove** **how a mass is related to a field and what is the constitution of this field. The great lines of this proof is that even when it is immobile, a mass *m * is related to a frequency *ν**m* by the relation *m=**h**ν**m**c**2* . This shows that a mass *m* creates a field of frequency *ν**m* propagated in the ether. The nature of such a field is that it is an ensemble of ether points only rotating on themselves, such that axes of these rotations are situated on any line passing through the center of this mass.

We proves that on the axis joining two masses *m**1* and *m**2* then, between them the fields of the rotation of the ether points due to *m**1* and *m**2* are of inverse senses that is, they partially destroys themselves, that is, there, the fields are smaller than the those that are not between *m**1* and *m**2* and situated on this axis. It follows that *m**1* and *m**2* have the tendency to get closer, that is, are submitted to a force that tends to make them closer and finally to form only one mass. This force is the gravitational attraction.

uncertainty of 3 × 10−10. This is only slightly larger than the 1.3 × 10−10 relative standard uncertainty in measurements

performed using the Kibble balance. Compton scattering presents an alternative pathway for improving the value of

Planck’s constant.

Natural units of length, mass, and time offer viable solutions for improving the values of physical constants. While

extensive values of the Planck units lie beyond the reach of present-day instrumentation, certain product and quotient

pairs of Planck units such as the speed of light can be measured with relatively high precision. Better measurements of

certain unit pairs will improve the value of the gravitational constant.]]>