http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/issue/feedJournal of Mathematics Research2017-01-23T18:52:00-08:00Sophia Wangjmr@ccsenet.orgOpen Journal Systems<p><strong><em>Journal of Mathematics Research </em></strong>(ISSN: 1916-9795; E-ISSN 1916-9809) is an open-access, international, double-blind peer-reviewed journal published by the Canadian Center of Science and Education. This journal, published <strong>bimonthly</strong> (<span>February, April, June, August, October and December</span>) in <strong>both print and online versions</strong>, keeps readers up-to-date with the latest developments in all aspects of mathematics.</p><div class="Section1"><strong>The scopes of the journal </strong>include, but are not limited to, the following topics: statistics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, operations research, dynamical systems, mathematical physics, theory of computation, information theory, cryptography, graph theory, algebra, analysis, probability theory, geometry and topology, number theory, logic and foundations of mathematics. <em> </em></div><div class="Section1"><p>This journal accepts article submissions<strong> <a href="/journal/index.php/jmr/information/authors">online</a> or by <a href="mailto:jmr@ccsenet.org">e-mail</a> </strong>(jmr@ccsenet.org).</p></div><div class="Section1"><br /><br /><strong><strong><em><img src="/journal/public/site/images/jmr/jmr.jpg" alt="jmr" width="201" height="264" align="right" hspace="20" /></em></strong><strong>ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING:</strong></strong></div><div class="Section1"><strong><br /></strong></div><div class="Section1"><ul><li>BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)<strong><br /></strong></li><li><strong>EBSCOhost</strong></li><li>Google Scholar</li><li>JournalTOCs</li><li>LOCKSS</li><li><strong>MathEDUC</strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.ams.org/dmr/JournalList.html">Mathematical Reviews</a>® (<a href="http://www.ams.org/mathscinet">MathSciNet</a>®) </strong>(-2012)</li><li>MathGuide</li><li>NewJour</li><li>OCLC Worldcat</li><li>Open J-Gate</li><li>SHERPA/RoMEO</li><li>Standard Periodical Directory</li><li>Ulrich's</li><li>Universe Digital Library</li><li><strong><a href="https://zbmath.org/journals/?q=se:00006772">Zentralblatt MATH</a> </strong>(2009-2013)</li></ul></div><div class="Section1"><strong><br /></strong></div><div class="Section1"> </div>http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/63607Existence of Positive Solutions of Fisher-KPP Equations in Locally Spatially Variational Habitat with Hybrid Dispersal2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Liang Konglkong9@uis.edu<p class="p1">The current paper investigate the persistence of positive solutions of KPP type evolution equations with random/nonlocal dispersal in locally spatially inhomogeneous habitat. By the constructions of super/sub solutions and comparison principle, we prove that such an equation has a unique globally stable positive stationary solution.</p>2017-01-02T18:28:12-08:00Copyright (c) 2016 Liang Konghttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65523Tensor Product Of Zero-divisor Graphs With Finite Free Semilattices2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Kemal Tokerktoker@harran.edu.tr$\Gamma (SL_{X})$ is defined and has been investigated in (Toker, 2016). In this paper our main aim is to extend this study over $\Gamma (SL_{X})$ to the tensor product. The diameter, radius, girth, domination number, independence number, clique number, chromatic number and chromatic index of $\Gamma (SL_{X_{1}})\otimes \Gamma (SL_{X_{2}})$ has been established. Moreover, we have determined when $\Gamma (SL_{X_{1}})\otimes \Gamma (SL_{X_{2}})$ is a perfect graph.2017-01-03T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Kemal Tokerhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/63515The Effects of Single-sex Mathematics Classrooms on African-American Males in the Ninth Grade2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Denise Faulkner-Simmonsdenise.simmons@mwsu.edu<p><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">High dropout rates and poor academic performance are frequent characteristics of the educational experience for African-American male youths (Bailey & Paisley, 2004). With increased accountability standards to raise the academic achievement levels, single-sex educational environments have taken a central role in school reform agendas and initiatives in many school districts (Herr & Arms, 2004). The incorporation of a single-sex grouping served as a conduit for teachers to deliver instruction based on the varied learning styles of the students.</span></span></p><p><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">This study was designed to determine the effect single-sex classroom instruction has on African American males’ achievement in ninth-grade mathematics compared to that of the other student groups. The researcher investigated a public school in a North Texas school district that offered alternative educational options for the students. Single-sex classrooms were created in mathematics. Teachers taught single-sex classes of students from varied ethnic backgrounds during at least one double-blocked period each day. </span><em><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">Ex post facto </span></em><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">data were analyzed. An independent samples t-test and a two-way factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were utilized to test each hypothesis to determine whether significant differences existed in the scale scores of comparison groups on state-mandated assessments over a period of 3 years. The instrument used to measure academic achievement is the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills.</span></span></p><p><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">This study found that the mathematics scores of African American males in single-sex classes did not significantly differ from the scores of African American males in coeducational classes. The scores for the males in single-sex classes were slightly higher than that of males in coeducational classes at each grade level throughout the 3-year period. The mathematics scores of African American females in single-sex learning environments were not significantly different than those of African American males in single-sex classes. The scores for the female students were consistently higher throughout the 3-year period. This study identified the need for single-sex instructional opportunities for students as a means of eliminating the achievement gap.</span></span></p>2017-01-02T18:28:12-08:00Copyright (c) 2016 Denise Simmonshttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65463Use of Hidden Markov Models to Identify Background States Behind Risks of Cerebral Infarction and Ischemic Heart Disease2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Hiroshi Morimotohiroshim@info.human.nagoya-u.ac.jp<p><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">Cold exposure is often said to trigger the incidence of cerebral infarctions and ischemic heart disease. This association between weather and human health has attracted considerable interest, and has been explored using standard statistical techniques such as regression models. Meteorological factors, such as temperature, are controlled by background systems, notably weather patterns. Therefore, it is reasonable to posit that the incidence of diseases is similarly influenced by a background system. The aim of this paper was to identify and construct these respective background systems. Possible background states or "hidden states", behind the incidence of diseases were derived using the EM and Viterbi algorithms with in the framework of hidden Markov models (HMM). A self-organizing map (SOM) enabled identification of weather patterns, considered as background states behind meteorological factors. These background states were then compared, and the hidden states behind the incidence of diseases were identified by six weather patterns. This finding indicates new evidence of the links between weather and human health, shedding light on the association between changes in the weather and the onset of disease.</span></p><p> </p>2017-01-02T18:28:12-08:00Copyright (c) 2016 Alassane Dioufhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65467Absolute Valued Algebras with Strongly One Sided Unit2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Alassane Dioufdioufalassane@hotmail.frWe classify the absolute valued algebras with strongly left unit of dimension <=. Also we prove that every 8-dimensional absolute valued algebra with strongly left unit contain a 4-dimensional subalgebra, next we determine the form of theirs algebras by the duplication process.2017-01-02T18:28:13-08:00Copyright (c) 2016 Alassane Dioufhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65464Some Results on FGS-modules2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00ALhousseynou BAdr.alhousseynou.ba@gmail.comAlbert Mankagna Diompydr.alhousseynou.ba@gmail.comAlassane Dioufdr.alhousseynou.ba@gmail.comAndre Souleye Diabangdr.alhousseynou.ba@gmail.comLet R be a commutative ring, with a unity 1 <span>not equal to</span> 0 and M a unitary left R-module. In this paper we give some properties of an FGS-module. After that we give others important characterizations. Indeed, we first show that M is a local FGS-module if and only if it is of finite representation type. Secondly, we show that M is a prime FGS-module if and only if it is a serial type module and of finite length if and only if it is a finite representation type module.2017-01-02T18:28:13-08:00Copyright (c) 2016 ALhousseynou BA, Albert Mankagna Diompy, Alassane Diouf, Andre Souleye Diabanghttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65466Some Problems of Feedback Control Strategies and It’s Treatment2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Maysoon M. Azizaziz_maysoon@yahoo.comSaad Fawzi AL-Azzawiaziz_maysoon@yahoo.com<span lang="EN-US">This paper extends and improves the feedback control strategies. In detailed, the ordinary feedback, dislocated feedback, speed feedback and enhancing feedback control for a several dynamical systems are discussed here. It is noticed that there some problems by these strategies. For this reason, this Letter proposes a novel approach for treating these problems. The results obtained in this paper show that the strategies with positive </span><span lang="EN-US">feedback coefficients can be controlled in two cases and failed in another two cases. </span><span lang="EN-US">Theoretical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate and verify the results.</span>2017-01-02T18:28:13-08:00Copyright (c) 2016 Maysoon M. Aziz, Saad Fawzi AL-Azzawihttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65934Types of Derivatives: Concepts and Applications (II)2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Salma A. KhalilSalma-math@windowslive.comMohammed A. BasheerSalma-math@windowslive.comTarig A. AbdelhaleemSalma-math@windowslive.com<p><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">The notion of differential geometry is known to have played a fundamental role in unifying aspects of the physics of particles and fields, and have completely transformed the study of classical mechanics.</span></span></p><p><span lang="EN-US"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">In this paper we applied the definitions and concepts which we defined and derived in part (I) of our paper: Types of Derivatives: Concepts and Applications to problems arising in Geometry and Fluid Mechanics using exterior calculus. We analyzed this problem, using the geometrical formulation which is global and free of coordinates.</span></span></p>2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Salma A. Khalil, Mohammed A. Basheer, Tarig A. Abdelhaleemhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65625Some New Results on Super Heronian Mean2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Labelling S. S. Sandhyagdjemi@gmail.comE. Ebin Raja Merlygdjemi@gmail.comG. D. Jemigdjemi@gmail.com<p><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">Here we discuss on Some new results on Super Heronian Mean Labelling of graphs. For the present investigation on Qn </span><span style="font-size: medium;">⨀</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;"> K1,</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">D(Qn) </span><span style="font-size: medium;">⨀</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;"> K1,</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;">Middle graph, Total graph, Ln </span><span style="font-size: medium;">⨀</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: medium;"> K1.We discuss briefly about the summary and the other valid information with appropriate graphs and definitions.</span></p><p> </p>2017-01-09T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Labelling S. S. Sandhya, E. Ebin Raja Merly, G. D. Jemihttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65626Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Convection-Diffusion Problems and Their Relationships with Finite Volume: The Multi-Dimensional Case2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Michel Fortinaserghini@cs.laurentian.caAbdellatif Serghini Mounimaserghini@cs.laurentian.ca.caWe introduced in (Fortin & Serghini Mounim, 2005) a new method which allows us to extend the connection between the finite volume and dual mixed hybrid (DMH) methods to advection-diffusion problems in the one-dimensional case. In the present work we propose to extend the results of (Fortin & Serghini Mounim, 2005) to multidimensional hyperbolic and parabolic problems. The numerical approximation is achieved using the Raviart-Thomas (Raviart & Thomas, 1977) finite elements of lowest degree on triangular or rectangular partitions. We show the link with numerous finite volume schemes by use of appropriate numerical integrations. This will permit a better understanding of these finite volume schemes and the large number of DMH results available could carry out their analysis in a unified fashion. Furthermore, a stabilized method is proposed. We end with some discussion on possible extensions of our schemes.2017-01-09T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Michel Fortin, Abdellatif Serghini Mounimhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65935A Viscosity Approximation Method for the Split Feasibility Problems in Hilbert Space2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Li Yangyangli@cwnu.edu.cnIn this paper, the most basic idea is to apply the viscosity approximation method to study the split feasibility problem (SFP), we will be in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space to study the problem . We defined $x_{0}\in C$ as arbitrary and $x_{n+1}=(1-\alpha_{n})P_{C}(I-\lambda_{n}A^{*}(I-P_{Q})A)x_{n}+\alpha_{n}f(x_{n})$, for $n\geq0,$ where $\{\alpha_{n}\}\subset(0,1)$. Under the proper control conditions of some parameters, we show that the sequence $\{x_{n}\}$ converges strongly to a solution of SFP. The results in this paper extend and further improve the relevant conclusions in Deepho (Deepho, J. \& Kumam, P., 2015).2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Li Yanghttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/64337$\ga$-Max Labelings of Graphs2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Supaporn Saduakdeeaa_o_rr@hotmail.comVaranoot Khemmanivaranoot@g.swu.ac.th<div>Let $G$ be a graph of order $n$ and size $m$. A $\gamma$-labeling of $G$ is a one-to-one function $f: V(G) \rightarrow \{0, 1, 2, \ldots, m\}$ that induces an edge-labeling<br />$f': E(G) \rightarrow \{1, 2, \ldots, m\}$ on $G$ defined by<br />$$ f'(e)=|f(u)-f(v)|\, ,\quad \mbox{for each edge $e=uv$ in}\, E(G)\, . $$ The value of $f$ is defined as $${\rm val}(f)=\sum_{e\in E(G)}f'(e)\, . $$ The maximum value of a \gamma$-labeling of $G$ is defined as $${\val}_{\max}(G) = \max \{\val(f): \mbox{$f$ is a $$-labeling of $G$}\};$$ while the minimum value of a $\gamma$-labeling of $G$ is $${\val}_{\min}(G) = \min \{\val(f): \mbox{$f$ is a $\gamma$-labeling of $G$}\}.$$ In this paper, we give an alternative short proof by mathematical induction to achieve the formulae for ${\val}_{\max}(K_{r, s})$ and ${\val}_{\max}(K_n)$.</div>2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Supaporn Saduakdee, Varanoot Khemmanihttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/64274Flows on Discrete Traffic Flower2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Alexander P. Buslaevapal2006@yandex.ruAlexander G. Tatasheva-tatashev@yandex.ru<p>A discrete dynamical system is considered in this paper. There are $L$ contours, which have a common point. There are Ni cells and Mi particles located in cells. Each particle moves on its contour in accordance with a given rule. Velocities of particles and other characteristics of the system are investigated.</p>2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Alexander Pavlovich Buslaev, Alexander Tatashevhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/58183On a Non Logsymplectic Logarithmic Poisson Structure with Poisson Cohomology Isomorphic to the Associated Logarithmic Poisson Cohomology2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Joseph Donghojoseph.dongho@fs.univ-maroua.cmThe main purpose of this article is to show that there are non logsymplectic Poisson structures whose Poisson cohomology groups are isomorphic to corresponding logarithmic Poisson cohomology groups.2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Mathematics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/64170Description of the Dependence Strength of Two Variogram Models of a Spatial Structure Using Archimedean Copulas2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Moumouni Diallomoudiallo1@gmail.comDiakarya Barrodbarro2@gmail.comVariogram is a geostatistical tool which describes how the spatial<br />continuity changes with a given separating distance between pairs of stations. In this paper, we study the dependence structure within a same class of bivariate spatialized archimedean copulas. Specifically, we point out properties of the gaussian variogram and the exponential one. A new measure of similarity of two copulas is computed particularly between the spatial independent copula and full dependence one.2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Diallo Moumouni, Barro Diakaryahttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/64678Extremal Dependence Modeling with Spatial and Survival Distributions2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Diakarya Barrodbarro2@gmail.com<div>This paper investigates some properties of dependence of extreme values distributions both in survival and spatial context. Specifically, we prospose a spatial Extremal dependence coefficient for survival distributions. Madogram is characterized in bivariate case and multivariate survival function and the underlying hazard distributions are given in a risky context.</div>2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Barro Diakaryahttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65939Fermat's Theorem -- a Geometrical View2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Luis Teialuistheya@gmail.comFermat's Last Theorem questions not only what is a triple, but more importantly, what is an integer in the context of equations of the type $x^n+y^n=z^n$. This paper explores these questions in one, two and three dimensions. It was found that two conditions are required for an integer element to exist in the context of the Pythagoras' theorem in 1D, 2D and 3D. An integer must satisfy the Pythagoras' theorem of the respective dimension -- condition 1. And, it must be completely successfully split into multiple unit scalars -- condition 2. In 1D, the fundamental unit scalar is the line length 1. All integers in 1D satisfy $x+y=z$, and can be decomposed into multiples of the unit line, hence integers exist and can form 1D triples $(x,y,z)$. In 2D, the fundamental unit scalar is the square side 1. Only some groups of integers (called triples) satisfy $x^2+y^2=z^2$, and can be decomposed into multiples of the unit square, forming 2D triples. In 3D, the fundamental unit scalar is the octahedron side 1. The geometry of the 3D Pythagoras' theorem dictates that $x^3+y^3=z^3$ is governed by octahedrons, validating condition 1. However, octahedrons with side length integer cannot be completely divided into unit octahedrons (as tetrahedrons appear), invalidating condition 2. Hence, if integers do not exist in the context of the 3D Pythagoras' theorem, then neither do triples. This confirms Fermat's Last Theorem for three dimensions ($n=3$). The geometrical interdependency between integers in 1D and 2D suggests that all integers of higher dimensions are built, and hence are dependent, on the integers of lower dimensions. This interdependency coupled with the absence of integers in 3D suggests that there are no integers above $n>2$, and therefore there are also no triples that satisfy $x^n+y^n=z^n$ for $n>2$.2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Luis Teiahttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65941Domain Decomposition Modified with Characteristic Mixed Finite Element and Numerical Analysis for Three-Dimensional Slightly Compressible Oil-Water Seepage Displacement2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00Yirang Yuanyryuan@sdu.edu.cnLuo Changyryuan@sdu.edu.cnChangfeng Liyryuan@sdu.edu.cnTongjun Sunyryuan@sdu.edu.cnA parallel algorithm is presented to solve three-dimensional slightly compressible seepage displacement where domain decomposition and characteristics-mixed finite element are combined. Decomposing the computational domain into several subdomains, we define a special function to approximate the derivative at interior boundary explicitly and obtain numerical solutions of the saturation implicitly on subdomains in parallel. The method of characteristics can confirm strong stability at the fronts, and can avoid numerical dispersion and nonphysical oscillation. It can adopt large-time step but can obtain small time truncation error. So a characteristic domain decomposition finite element scheme is put forward to compute the saturation. The flow equation is computed by the method of mixed finite element and numerical accuracy of Darcy velocity is improved one order. For a model problem we apply some techniques such as variation form, domain decomposition, the method of characteristics, the principle of energy, negative norm estimates, induction hypothesis, and the theory of priori estimates of differential equations to derive optimal error estimate in $l^2$ norm. Numerical example is given to testify theoretical analysis and numerical data show that this method is effective in solving actual applications. Then it can solve the well-known problem.2017-01-23T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Yirang Yuan, Luo Chang, Changfeng Li, Tongjun Sunhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65940Solving a Mixed Problem with Almost Regular Boundary Condition By the Contour Integral Method2017-01-22T23:00:01-08:00S. T. Aleskerovasabina.alesgerova75@gmail.comIn the paper, a mixed problem for $\lambda $-complex parameter dependent, fourth order partial equation is considered. The estimations for the Green function for the eigenvalues of the considered problem outside of $\delta $ were obtained within the regular boundary condition. The solution of the mixed problem was given in the contour integral form.Copyright (c) 2017 S. T. Aleskerovahttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/65955Reviewer Acknowledgements for Journal of Mathematics Research, Vol. 9, No. 12017-01-23T18:52:00-08:00Sophia Wangjmr@ccsenet.org<div><p><em>Journal of Mathematics Research</em> wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated.</p><p>Many authors, regardless of whether <em>Journal of Mathematics Research</em> publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers.</p><p><strong>Reviewers for Volume 9, Number 1</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p></div><strong><br clear="all" /> </strong><p align="center"> </p><p align="left">Gabriela Ciuperca, University Lyon 1, France</p><p align="left">Gane Sam Lo, Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis, Senegal</p><p align="left">Guy Biyogmam, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, USA</p><p align="left">Kong Liang, University of Illinois at Springfield, USA</p><p align="left">Kuldeep Narain Mathur, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia</p><p align="left">Luca Di Persio, University of Verona, Italy</p><p align="left">Marek Brabec, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic</p><p align="left">Maria Alessandra Ragusa, University of Catania, Italy</p><p align="left">Omur Deveci, Kafkas University, Turkey</p><p align="left">Paul J. Udoh, University of Uyo., Nigeria</p><p align="left">Pengcheng Xiao, University of Evansville, USA</p><p align="left">Philip Philipoff, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria</p><p align="left">Rovshan Bandaliyev, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan</p><p align="left">Sanjib Kumar Datta, University of Kalyani, India</p><p align="left">Sergiy Koshkin, University of Houston Downtown, USA</p><p align="left">Vishnu Narayan Mishra, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, India</p><p align="left">Waleed Al-Rawashdeh, Montana Tech, USA</p><p align="left">Yulei Pang, Southern CT State University, USA</p><p> </p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p>Sophia Wang</p><p>On behalf of,</p><p>The Editorial Board of <em>Journal of Mathematics Research</em></p><p>Canadian Center of Science and Education</p>2017-01-24T00:00:00-08:00Copyright (c) 2017 Sophia Wang