The Implementation of Dynamic System Theory and the Principles of Growth in Physical Education of Elementary School

Syahrial Bakhtiar


Physical education in elementary school is supposed to promote child growth and development, not only for psychomotor, but also within the cognitive and affective domains. The rate of growth and development of children varies from individual to individual. An appropriate program and lesson plan should not be designed based on the level in elementary school only, but it also should rely on individual development. The four principles of growth; cephalocaudal, proximodistal, hierarchical integration and the independence system principle, provide a direction to begin and to end the physical education program or lesson plans. Moreover, dynamic system theory is an essential guidance for designing a developmentally appropriate program in physical education for elementary school students. This theory depicts well how to progress the lesson plan based on child growth and development principles. By understanding both theory and principles, it is expected that flaws in the physical education activities can be avoided in the hope of encouraging physical activity among children.

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