Applied Physics Research
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr
<img style="float: right; padding-left: 20px; padding-right: 20px;" src="/journal/public/site/images/blj/APR-cover.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="405" /><br /><p><em>Applied Physics Research</em> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Canadian Center of Science and Education. The journal focuses on the following topics: acoustics, astrophysics and geophysics, biophysics, computational physics, condensed matter physics, engineering physics, free electron physics, laser and quantum electronics, medical physics, optics, semiconductor physics and devices, solid state physics, space physics.</p><p>The journal provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field. The journal carries original and full-length articles that reflect the latest research and developments in both theoretical and practical aspects of applied physics.</p><p>The journal is published in both print and online versions <strong>bimonthly (February, April, June, August, October, December)</strong>. The online version is free access and download. If you want to order print copies, please visit: <a href="http://store.ccsenet.org">http://store.ccsenet.org</a></p><p>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Issues</strong></p><strong> </strong><ul><li><a href="/journal/index.php/apr/issue/current"><strong>Open Issue (e-Version First<sup>TM</sup> )</strong></a><strong> </strong></li><li><strong><a href="/journal/index.php/apr/issue/archive">All Issues</a></strong></li></ul><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p>The journal accepts <a href="/journal/index.php/apr/login/signIn"><strong>Online submission</strong></a> and <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>Email submission</strong></a>. Manuscripts (MS office word format) and supplementary materials can be submitted via the journal’s Online Management System or email to <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p><p>If you have any questions, please contact the editorial assistant at <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Index/List/Archive</strong></p><ul><li><strong><a href="http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2280457">Bibliography and Index of Geology</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.ebscohost.com/">EBSCOhost</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://scholar.google.com/">Google Scholar</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.lockss.org/">LOCKSS</a></strong></li><li><a href="http://openj-gate.org/"><strong>Open J-Gate</strong></a></li><li><strong><a href="http://pkp.sfu.ca/?q=harvester">PKP Open Archives Harvester</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.proquest.com/en-US/">ProQuest</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.oxbridge.com/SPDCluster/theSPD.asp">Standard Periodical Directory</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/login">Ulrich's</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.udltheses.com/MIDX10100">Universe Digital Library</a></strong></li></ul>Canadian Center of Science and Educationen-USApplied Physics Research1916-9639Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication. <br />Copyrights for articles published in CCSE journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.Dipole Moment and Electronic Structure Calculations of the Electronic States of the molecular ion SiN+
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/60411
<p class="1Body">A theoretical investigation of the lowest electronic states of the molecular ion SiN<sup>+</sup> has been performed via Complete Active Space Self Consistent Field (CASSCF) method with Multi Reference Configuration Interaction MRCI+Q (single and double excitations with Davidson correction) calculations. The potential energy curves of the low-lying 37 electronic states in the representation <sup>2s+1</sup>Λ<sup>(+/-)</sup>, up to 140000 cm<sup>-1 , </sup>have been investigated. The permanent dipole moment, the harmonic frequency ω<sub>e</sub>, the equilibrium internuclear distance R<sub>e</sub>, the rotational constants B<sub>e</sub> and the electronic energy with respect to the ground state T<sub>e</sub> have been calculated for these electronic states. The comparison between the values of the present work and those available in the literature for several electronic states shows a very good agreement. The permanent dipole moment, of the investigated 37 electronic states, have been calculated in the present work for the first time along with the investigation of nine new electronic states that have not been observed yet.</p>Karam HamdanGhassan YounesMahmoud Korek
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-06-062016-06-0684110.5539/apr.v8n4p1A New Kinetics Defect Diffusion Model and the Critical Current Density of Semiconductor Laser Degradation
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61258
<p class="1Body">Critical current density on the electromigration failure is a commonly observed phenomenon in the integrated circuit (IC) interconnect. The critical current density is important for the lognormal distribution and failure time extrapolation of IC metal conductors. In this paper, we report the critical current density (j<sub>c</sub>) of semiconductor laser degradation for the first time. Despite of the different physical origin, the j<sub>c</sub> of the laser degradation exhibits similar effect on the failure time distribution. We develop a new kinetic defect diffusion model that can account for the existence of j<sub>c</sub>. We discuss the physical mechanism and its implication in the reliability extrapolation of diode lasers.</p>Jack Jia-Sheng HuangYu-Heng Jan
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-07-062016-07-06841110.5539/apr.v8n4p11Geographical Location Estimation based on An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59975
This study presents a strategy for determining the relatively accurate geographical location of an object based on a video or a sequence of images taken at regular intervals. On the basis of a series of solar formulas, a precise object’s shadow length model that includes the latitude and longitude of the photographer is built to describe how the shadow changes. Inputting the shadow length of the object and the creation time of the image into the built model, parameters like the latitude or longitude can be estimated by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). To solve the problem that PSO is easy to get stuck into local optima, a compression factor and mutation operation are introduced to the algorithm. Through analyzing the instance, the improved PSO algorithm has demonstrated itself with enhancement in convergence and accuracy. In conclusion, the improved PSO is an effective and precise tool to estimate the geographical location of video or images.Zhuojie ChenLang DengYuanbiao Zhang
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
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2016-07-302016-07-30842010.5539/apr.v8n4p20Numerical Investigation of Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in GeAsSe Based Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fiber Using Low Peak Power
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61887
We numerically investigate the use of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) through dispersion engineering of its cladding containing air-holes for supercontinuum (SC) generation in the mid-infrared region using low peak power. A 3.6-cm-long PCF made using Ge11.5As24Se64.5 chalcogenide (ChG) glass with a hexagonal array of air-holes was optimized for obtaining zero-dispersion wavelength through dispersion tailoring around the pump wavelength of 4 μm. We have performed numerical simulations for such dispersion tailored ChG PCF with the peak power range between 0.25 kW and 2 kW. It was found through rigorous numerical simulations that an ultrabroadband mid-infrared SC spectra covering the wavelength range 2-8 μm which is equivalent to 2 octaves could be generated using pump pulses of 320 fs duration at a wavelength of 4 μm with a relatively low peak power of 2 kW by using our proposed ChG PCF design.M. R. KarimB. M. A. Rahman
Copyright (c) 2016 M. R. Karim, B. M. A. Rahman
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2016-07-292016-07-29842910.5539/apr.v8n4p29Quantum Gravity as Higher Dimensional Perspective
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61888
Although highly predictive in their respective macroscopic and microscopic domains of applicability, General Relativity and quantum mechanics are mathematically incompatible, perhaps most markedly in assumptions in their formalisms concerning the nature of space and time. In <em>perspective</em> we already have a conceptual structure that links the local, macroscopic frame and the remote, apparently microscopic frame. A mathematical principle is invoked as a natural limit on D(n), so that effects which are clearly perspectival at D=3 become ‘more real’ (<em>effectively</em> observer-independent) with each D(n) increment. For instance, the apparently microscopic becomes the effectively microscopic and <em>scale extremes are juxtaposed</em>, so that black holes are local, macroscopic vanishing-points, in a similar way to that in which in projective geometry the point at infinity is incorporated into the foreground. (In other words, <em>a black hole is a blown-up ‘Planck-scale’ singularity</em>.) Characteristics of the earthbound frame are applied to D>3, suggesting a physical basis for entanglement, and perspectival interpretations of quantum gravity, dimensional reduction and the information paradox. We claim that the familiar processes whereby multiple physical states become describable by a single state in which composition information appears to be lost (e.g., ‘falling into a black hole’, the state of quantum linearity, and the state of freefall) are all examples of effective convergence of a space or <em>n</em>-surface to a single point of perspective.Rob Langley
Copyright (c) 2016 Rob Langley
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2016-07-292016-07-29843810.5539/apr.v8n4p38Generalization of the Particle Spin as it Ensues from the Ether Theory
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/60152
In previous papers we generalized the ether waves associated to photons, to waves generally denoted , associated to Par(m,e)s, (particles of mass m and electric charge e), and demonstrated that a Par(m,e)s is a superposition of such waves that forms a small globule moving with the velocity of this . That, at a point near to a moving , the ether velocity , i.e., the magnetic field H, is of the same form as that of a point of a rotating solid. This is the spin of the Par(m,e)s, in particular, of the electron. Then, we considered the case where e=0 and showed that the perturbation caused by the motion of a Par(m,e)s is also propagated in the ether, and is a propagating gravitational field such that the Newton approximation (NA) is a tensor Guobtained by applying the Lorenz transformation for Vm,o on the NA of the static gravitational potential of forces Gu,s. It appeared that Gu is also of the form of a Lienard-Wiechert potential tensor Au created by an electric charge.<br />In the present paper, we generalized the above results regarding the spin by showing that the ether elasticity theory implies also that like the electron, the massive neutral particle possesses a spin but much smaller than that of the electron, and that the photon can possess also a spin, when for example it is circularly polarized. In fact, we show that the spin associated to a particle is a vortex in ether which in closed trajectories will take only quantized values.<br /><br />David Zareski
Copyright (c) Applied Physics Research
2016-07-302016-07-30845810.5539/apr.v8n4p58Characterization of Water and Nitrogen Stress of Maize by Laser Induced Fluorescence
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/60732
<p class="1Body">Water and nitrogen are essential for the optimal development of corn plants. A deficiency of these elements leads to lower crop production. Also, the health status of a plant influences the photosynthesis process. The photosynthetic diagnosis of a plant from the chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum induced by laser is non-destructive to the sample, reliable and fast method. As part of this work, we showed that it is possible to detect the nitrogen and water deficiencies of corn from the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio at 690 nm and 740 nm, when the measurements are performed before the senescence phase.</p><p class="1Body">Indeed, we found that the R fluorescence ratio increases over time, for any stress on the plant. However, R decreases with the nitrogen stress and increases with increasing water loss.</p><p class="1Body">The measures should be performed 51 Days After Planting (DAP) to detect water deficiency and the suitable date for nitrogen deficiency detection is 61 DAP.</p><p class="1Body">Before each of these dates, the plants will be considered water deficient if the fluorescence ratio R ≤ 1.34 and will be nitrogen stressed if R > 1.36.</p>Adama Penetjiligue SOROEmma Georgina ZORO-DIAMAKedro Sidiki DIOMANDEGuy Euloge BANYYvon BIBILA MAYAYA BISSEYOUAdjo Viviane ADOHI-KROU
Copyright (c) Applied Physics Research
2016-07-302016-07-30846410.5539/apr.v8n4p64The Path of the Shortest Time
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/60030
The principal of least action is one of the fundamental ideas in physics. The path of the shortest time of a particle in the presence of gravity is an example of this principal. In this paper some methods are introduced to teach the optimal path in introductory physics courses. The optimal path (path of the shortest time) is calculated for a few families of paths. Finally a numerical method according to Snell’s law in a discrete medium is used to find the general optimal path and is compared with the brachistochrone path.Masoud Asadi-ZeydabadiClyde Zaidins
Copyright (c) Applied Physics Research
2016-07-302016-07-30847310.5539/apr.v8n4p73The Ground State Electronic Properties of Two Electron Quantum Dot in External Magnetic and Electric Fields
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61889
<p class="1Body">The ground state energies of two interacting electrons in two dimensions are studied within the framework of shifted 1/N expansion. The effect of external uniform magnetic and electric have been studied. Energies of the relative part of the Hamiltonian of the system are calculated for both weak and strong field regimes. Our results show a very good agreement with those obtained by other computational methods like asymptotic integration (AIM) and exact diagonalizaion methods.</p>I. Al-Hayek
Copyright (c) 2016 I. Al-Hayek
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2016-07-292016-07-29848310.5539/apr.v8n4p83X-ray Attenuation and Reduction of Backscattered Radiation
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61890
This paper reports the comparative study of X-ray attenuation using different materials which can be utilized to design anti-backscattered grids and radiation protection shields. The characteristics of X-ray attenuation in several materials, namely, lead, copper, iron steel, and aluminum, are investigated under diverse exposure parameters to measure their ability to attenuate incident X-ray and their capability to reduce backscattered X-ray. Lead and iron steel shields exhibit the best abilities in attenuating X-ray, whereas aluminum shield shows the least attenuation ability. This study proposes a design of a unique method for assessing the backscatter X-ray dose. The iron steel grid based on iron steel plate provides the best value in reducing backscattered radiation (up to 34.78%) compared with other conventional plate materials.A. T. NajiM. S. JaafarE. A. AliS. K. J. Al-Ani
Copyright (c) 2016 A. T. Naji, M. S. Jaafar, E. A. Ali, S. K. J. Al-Ani
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2016-07-292016-07-29849210.5539/apr.v8n4p92Derivation of the Multimoment Hydrodynamics Equations for a Gas Mixture
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61905
<p class="1Body">The equations for pair distribution functions are used to derive the multimoment hydrodynamics equations for gas mixture. The gas mixture pair distribution functions are specified. The equations for pair functions are derived directly from the general statistical mechanics concepts. The basic property of the pair functions is established. In conformity with basic property, these functions remain unchanged in time along the trajectory of the center of inertia of a pair. The basic property of the pair distribution functions reveals the existence of an infinite number of principle hydrodynamic values. Multimoment hydrodynamics equations are constructed using 3L+4 principle hydrodynamic values, where is the number of gas mixture components. Just these principle values specify measurable moments. The measurable moments are represented by linear combination of principle and non-principle hydrodynamic values. The general structure of constructed multimoment conservation laws is identical to the structure of appropriate multimoment conservation laws in a gas of identical particles. Each of the multimoment conservation laws is divided into two separate equations. The first group of conservation equations corresponds to convective phenomena. The second group of conservation equations corresponds to dissipative phenomena. Derived multimoment hydrodynamics equations are designed for interpreting the behavior of unstable systems. As is shown previously, classic hydrodynamics equations are incapable of reproducing flows after they lose stability. That is, the solutions to the classic hydrodynamics equations do not find the direction of instability development correctly. The possibility of improvement of classic hydrodynamics equations for a gas mixture is sought on the way toward an increase in the number of principle hydrodynamic values.</p>Igor V. Lebed
Copyright (c) 2016 Igor V. Lebed
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2016-07-292016-07-298410310.5539/apr.v8n4p103On the Trigonometric Description of the Michelson-Morley Experiment
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61906
<p class="1Body">One formula with two trigonometric corrections describing the round trip of the beams in the Michelson-Morley experiment is presented. The first trigonometric correction describes the round trip path of those beams, while the second trigonometric correction describes the trigonometric geometric mean of the two-way speed of those beams. This formula gives the null fringe shift result for the first order experiments (Fizeau experiment, Hoek experiment), the null fringe shift result for the second order experiment (Michelson-Morley experiment), and predicts a measurable fringe shift result for the fourth order experiment. This trigonometric model can be tested experimentaly by the advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory) technology with three arms separated by the angle π/4 and the longitudinal arm directed to the CMB rest frame in the direction to the constellation Crater (known in the Greek mythology as the Cup of the god Apollo). This proposed fourth order experiment can be named as the advanced LIFE (Laser Interferometer Fringe Enigma) experiment. The published predictions before the arrival of experimental data from the advanced LIFE experiment can estimate the power of our models.</p>Jiri Stavek
Copyright (c) 2016 Jiri Stavek
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2016-07-292016-07-298413410.5539/apr.v8n4p134A Classical and a Relativistic Law of Motion for SN1987A
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/60850
In this paper we derive some first order differential equations which model the classical and the relativistic thin layer approximations in the presence of a circumstellar medium with a density which is decreasing in the distance z from the equatorial plane. The circumstellar medium is assumed to follow a density profile with z of hyperbolic type, power law type, exponential type or Gaussian type. The first order differential equations are solved analytically, or numerically, or by a series expansion, or by Pad´e approximants. The initial conditions are chosen in order to model the temporal evolution of SN 1987A over 23 years. The free parameters of the theory are found by maximizing the observational reliability which is based on an observed section of SN 1987A.Lorenzo Zaninetti
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
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2016-07-312016-07-318413810.5539/apr.v8n4p138Defects and Correction Theories of Electromagnetics
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61907
<p class="1Body">Experiments show that, there is the electrostatic field around the permanent magnet; since the electromagnetics can not explain this phenomenon, it can be concluded that there are some defects in electromagnetics. This paper makes an analysis of the defects of electromagnetics from fourteen aspects. It is noted that, the basic defect of electromagnetics is that there is no explanation of any inherent causes and physical processes of electromagnetic induction, displacement current, Lorentz force and other surface phenomena. Moreover, it may also lead us to make incorrect inferences in the theoretical analysis of electromagnetics, e.g. the same direction of action and reaction, infinitely high kinematic velocity of magnetic field, etc. It can be seen from analysis of all electromagnetic phenomena that, all the electromagnetic phenomena will be inevitably accompanied by an electron motion; and the electron motion is bound to take effect through an electric field; therefore, the analysis of motion in an electric field is the basis for analysis of all electromagnetic phenomena. This paper proposes seven rules for analysis of motion in an electric field, analyzes the uniform motion and variable motion in an electric field on the basis of such rules, clarifies the inherent causes of Lorentz force, theoretically qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrates why there exists the electrostatic field at some locations around the permanent magnet, and considers that all the magnetic phenomena are resulted from the contraction of electric field in the direction of motion, which is derived from the natural law of constant velocity of light, and therefore all the electromagnetic phenomena is rooted in the constant velocity of light. Through the analysis of variable motion in an electric field, this paper proves the law of displacement current and electromagnetic induction, clarifies the physical processes of such phenomena, deduces the law of total current, explains why electric field strength and magnetic field strength of electromagnetic wave must be in same phase and why a plane wave has the electric and magnetic fields only with a certain length but no source, and considers that neither fast nor slow propagation velocity of electromagnetic wave is good and that the actual velocity of light is the ideal velocity of light.</p>Kexin Yao
Copyright (c) 2016 Kexin Yao
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2016-07-292016-07-298415410.5539/apr.v8n4p154Reviewer Acknowledgements for Applied Physics Research, Vol. 8, No. 4
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/61908
<br /><div>Reviewer Acknowledgements for Applied Physics Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2016</div>Lily Green
Copyright (c) 2016 Lily Green
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2016-07-302016-07-308420510.5539/apr.v8n4p205