Applied Physics Research
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr
<img style="float: right; padding-left: 20px; padding-right: 20px;" src="/journal/public/site/images/blj/APR-cover.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="405" /><br /><p><em>Applied Physics Research</em> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Canadian Center of Science and Education. The journal focuses on the following topics: acoustics, astrophysics and geophysics, biophysics, computational physics, condensed matter physics, engineering physics, free electron physics, laser and quantum electronics, medical physics, optics, semiconductor physics and devices, solid state physics, space physics.</p><p>The journal provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field. The journal carries original and full-length articles that reflect the latest research and developments in both theoretical and practical aspects of applied physics.</p><p>The journal is published in both print and online versions <strong>bimonthly (February, April, June, August, October, December)</strong>. The online version is free access and download. If you want to order print copies, please visit: <a href="http://store.ccsenet.org">http://store.ccsenet.org</a></p><p>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Issues</strong></p><strong> </strong><ul><li><a href="/journal/index.php/apr/issue/current"><strong>Open Issue (e-Version First<sup>TM</sup> )</strong></a><strong> </strong></li><li><strong><a href="/journal/index.php/apr/issue/archive">All Issues</a></strong></li></ul><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p>The journal accepts <a href="/journal/index.php/apr/login/signIn"><strong>Online submission</strong></a> and <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>Email submission</strong></a>. Manuscripts (MS office word format) and supplementary materials can be submitted via the journal’s Online Management System or email to <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p><p>If you have any questions, please contact the editorial assistant at <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Index/List/Archive</strong></p><ul><li><strong><a href="http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2280457">Bibliography and Index of Geology</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.ebscohost.com/">EBSCOhost</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://scholar.google.com/">Google Scholar</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.lockss.org/">LOCKSS</a></strong></li><li><a href="http://openj-gate.org/"><strong>Open J-Gate</strong></a></li><li><strong><a href="http://pkp.sfu.ca/?q=harvester">PKP Open Archives Harvester</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.proquest.com/en-US/">ProQuest</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.oxbridge.com/SPDCluster/theSPD.asp">Standard Periodical Directory</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/login">Ulrich's</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.udltheses.com/MIDX10100">Universe Digital Library</a></strong></li></ul>Canadian Center of Science and Educationen-USApplied Physics Research1916-9639Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication. <br />Copyrights for articles published in CCSE journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.Model of Melting and Heat Transfer in Metals
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/66434
Volumetric relationships under the thermal expansion of metals are analyzed. It is shown that the metals with the bcc structure possess a two-step structural change at the melting point: first, the transformation of the bcc structure to a fcc one takes place and then, liquid phase clusters with K = 12 are formed. The hexagonally packed (6 + 6) layered Cd and Zn change their structure from K=6 to K = 8 before melting. For the polymorphic transformations fcc (hcp) -- bcc, the value of thermal expansion was sufficient to change K = 12 for K = 8 long before the melting point. It is assumed that at high temperatures, thermal energy transfer is associated with the exchange fluctuations: higher electron density +K lambda and low electron density –K lambda over the coordinate of interatomic distances, wher lambda = h/mc and K is the number of nearest neighbors.E. S. Filippov
Copyright (c) 2017 E. S. Filippov
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2017-02-162017-02-1692110.5539/apr.v9n2p1Morphology and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry of PMMA Thin Films
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/65862
<p class="1Body">The morphology and optical properties of PMMA thin films deposited on silicon substrates were investigated. The spin coated films were characterized by atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Regardless that, the samples were deposited at different coating speeds, the surface structures of all PMMA thin films were consistent, and found to be relatively smooth, with a mean grain size in the range of 13-25 nm. The refractive index as well as the extinction coefficient of the films was determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry data over the wavelength range 380-750 nm. For this purpose, we used the Cauchy dispersion relation in order to represent PMMA layers, and then models were built by adding a roughness layer, which simply corrects any possible deviation from planarity. Besides, the thicknesses of all four films were calculated simultaneously based on multiple sample analysis method. By using this method, optical properties were coupled in such way that, the optical constants for all samples were assumed to be identical.</p>H. M. El-Nasser
Copyright (c) 2017 Husam Mahmoud El-Nasser
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2017-02-162017-02-1692510.5539/apr.v9n2p5Sums of Powers of Integers and Bernoulli Numbers Clarified
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/65085
This work exposes a very simple method for calculating at the same time the sums of powers of the first integers S_m(n) and the Bernoulli numbers B_m. This is possible thank only to the relation S_m(x+1)-S_m(x)= x^m and the Pascal formula concerning S_m(n) which may be explained as if the vector n^2-n, n^3-n,...,n^(m+1)-n is the transform of the vector S_1(n), S_2(n),...,S_m(n) by a matrix P built from the Pascal triangle. Very useful relations between the sums S_m(n), the Bernoulli numbers B_m and elements of the inverse matrix of P are deduced, leading straightforwardly to known and new properties of them.<br /><h1 align="center"><em><br /></em></h1>DO TAN SI
Copyright (c) 2017 DO TAN SI
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2017-02-162017-02-16921210.5539/apr.v9n2p12The Nature of Time
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/65326
<p>I. Special relativity does not address the fact that time must exist on lifeless worlds. It only addresses time that is observed, which requires that observers be present.</p><p><br />II. The time that exists on lifeless worlds can be termed physical time.</p><p><br />III. The failure to recognize the existence of physical time has resulted in a view of time that is contrived, overly simplistic and contains irrational conclusions which are not experimentally supported.</p><p><br />IV. On worlds where conscious life exists, both physical time and observed time exist. The characteristics of physical time and of observed time are very different.</p><p><br />V. Physical time has the following attributes:<br />a. Each physical event is associated with physical time.<br />b. The attributes of absolute time, ‘now’ and time dilation are associated with every physical event.<br />c. All physical events occur during ‘now’. <br />d. A physical event results in a change to physical reality.<br />e. The frame of reference associated with a physical event is universal.<br />f. In order to be observed, a physical event must have an associated observed event.<br /><br />VI. Observed time has the following attributes.<br />a. Every observed event is associated with observed time.<br />b. An observed event can only occur as the result of a physical event.<br />c. Multiple observations can be associated with a single physical event.<br />d. The attribute of ‘now’ and a frame of reference are associated with every observed event.<br /><br />VII. The duration of physical ‘now’ is a Planck time which is also the unit of measure for absolute time and time dilation.<br /><br />VIII. Time dilation is computed using the Lorentz transformation.<br />IX. The statement regarding time dilation “When two observers are in relative uniform motion and uninfluenced by any gravitational mass, the point of view of each will be that the other's (moving) clock is ticking at a slower rate than the local clock” is mathematically, experimentally and logically wrong.<br />X. During physical ‘now’ a particle may move through space or it may move through time; which it does is a probability based on the speed of the particle expressed as a percentage of the speed of light.</p>Sydney Baldwin Self
Copyright (c) 2017 Sydney Baldwin Self
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2017-02-162017-02-16922110.5539/apr.v9n2p21Hypothesis of the Hidden Multiverse Explains Dark Matter and Dark Energy
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/65884
<p class="1Body">There are currently a large number of Multiverse hypotheses, which are, however, non-verifiable, i.e. they can be neither confirmed nor refuted experimentally even in the distant future. In contrast, the hypothesis of the hidden Multiverse considered in the article is verifiable and therefore has a right to be called a theory. The theory uses the principle of physical reality of imaginary numbers discovered 500 years ago, including complex and hypercomplex numbers, as fundamental and proved by the author theoretically and experimentally. This principle has allowed revealing a number of serious mistakes in the special theory of relativity. An adjusted version of the special theory of relativity has been proposed and the theory of the hidden Multiverse has been developed on its basis. The Multiverse has been referred to as hidden, because parallel universes it contains are mutually invisible. The nature of their invisibility is explained in the article. It is shown that dark matter and dark energy are other universes of the hidden Multiverse apart from ours. Analysis of data from WMAP and Planck spacecrafts has shown that the hidden Multiverse has quaternion structure comprising four pairs of universes and antiverses (i.e., four pairs of matter and antimatter).</p>Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov
Copyright (c) Alexander Alexandrovich Antonov
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2017-02-162017-02-16923010.5539/apr.v9n2p30Gravity and the Absoluteness of Time: a Simple Qualitative Model
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/66130
<p class="1Body">In this paper, we qualitatively examine the compatibility between gravity and the absoluteness of time. Initially, time is supposed as being absolute. However, this assumption does not imply that instruments and devices, finalized to measure time, are not influenced by gravity. On the contrary, we admit that whatever phenomenon, including the ones that occur when we measure time, shows clear traces of the influence of gravity. Nonetheless, the alleged time dilation, that seems to occur when we approach a gravitational source, could actually be illusory. In this paper, in fact, we contemplate the possibility that the above-mentioned phenomenon could be exclusively related to the contraction of the orbits induced by the mass that produces the gravitational field. We start from postulating a Universe, belonging to the oscillatory class, characterized by at least a further spatial dimension. At the beginning, the Universe in its entirety is assimilated to a four-dimensional ball, and matter is considered as being evenly spread. Once hypothesized that all the available mass may be concentrated in a single point, taking advantage of an opportune parameterization, pretending that the orbits don't undergo any modification whatsoever and admitting, as a consequence, that time starts slowing down when we move towards the singularity, we can easily obtain, far from the source, a Schwarzschild solution for the vacuum field, without using General Relativity.</p>Carmine Cataldo
Copyright (c) 2017 Carmine Cataldo
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2017-03-062017-03-06924210.5539/apr.v9n2p42Electromagnetic Radiation from a Tesla Transformer
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/67092
<p class="1Body">In addition to the resistive and dielectric losses that inevitably occur near the secondary winding of a Tesla transformer, electromagnetic radiation into the far field also contributes to the overall power losses and thereby reduces both the effective quality factor (Q) and the power transfer efficiency of this winding. A short study of these effects for a laboratory scale transformer has shown that, in addition to its Q-factor being considerably reduced, the secondary winding is an extremely inefficient radiator of electromagnetic energy.</p>R M CravenI R SmithB M Novac
Copyright (c) 2017 R M Craven, I R Smith, B M Novac
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2017-03-172017-03-17925310.5539/apr.v9n2p53On the Hidden Beauty of Trigonometric Functions
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/67093
<p class="1Body">In the unit circle with radius R = E<sub>0</sub> = mc<sup>2</sup> = 1 we have defined the trigonometric function cos(Theta) = v/c. The known trigonometric functions revealed the hidden relationships between sensible energy, latent energy, sensible momentum and latent momentum of the moving object, and the absorbed momentum from outside and the available momentum in the outside of the moving object. We present the trigonometric concept inspired by the old Babylonian clay tablet IM 55357 and based on the knowledge of the School of Athens (the fresco of Raphael) and the work of many generations of the Masters of trigonometry. The concept of the Divided Line of Plato can be now quantitatively tested. For the experimental analysis of this concept we propose to study in details the very well known beta decay of RaE to determine the sensible and latent energy (heat) of those beta particles and the sensible and latent energy of the remaining nucleus. The longitudinal momentum and the transverse (latent) momentum can be studied on the effects of the slow neutrons. The longitudinal momentum and the transverse momentum of photons can be manipulated in a convenient medium in order to prepare slow photons. The photoormi effect might improve the efficiency of the light-to-electricity conversion and the efficiency of the light-to-heat conversion.</p>Jiri Stavek
Copyright (c) 2017 Jiri Stavek
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2017-03-172017-03-17925710.5539/apr.v9n2p57The Total Energy and Momentum Stored in a Particle
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/66721
<p class="1Body">In this paper we reconsider the conventional expressions given by special relativity to the energy and momentum of a particle. In the current framework, the particle's energy and momentum are computed using the particle's rest mass, M and rest mass time, t_m=h/M c^2 where t_m has the same time unit as conventionally used for the light velocity c. Therefore it is currently assumed that this definition of time describes the total kinetic and mass energy of a particle as given by special relativity. In this paper we will reexamine the above assumption and suggest describing the particle's energy as a function of its own particular decay time and not with respect to its rest mass time unit. Moreover we will argue that this rest mass time unit currently used is in fact the minimum time unit defined for a particle and that the particle may have more energy stored with in it. Experimental ways to search for this extra energy stored in particles such as electrons and photons are presented.</p>Eyal Brodet
Copyright (c) Eyal Brodet
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2017-03-172017-03-17926510.5539/apr.v9n2p65Zero-Point Energy and the Emergence of Gravity: Two Hypotheses
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/67134
<p class="1Body">Building on the results of experiments and speculations arising from his earlier collaborations as well as proposals from the theoretical work of others, the author suggests that gravity emerges as a result of the interaction of zero-point energy with matter. The results of experiments suggest that light, through its interaction with zero-point energy causes changes in the weight of test masses. These experimental results are interpreted as being due to changes in the spectral [Note 1] content surrounding massive bodies. Two hypotheses therefore emerge. Further experiments are planned to test the findings from earlier experiments.</p>Philip J. Tattersall
Copyright (c) 2017 Philip J. Tattersall
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2017-03-202017-03-20927210.5539/apr.v9n2p72A New Problem with the Twin Paradox
http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/67135
<p class="1Body">This paper discusses the “triplet thought experiment” in which accelerated motion is eliminated from the famous<em> twin paradox</em> thought experiment of the special theory of relativity (STR). The author considers the coordinate systems of an inertial frame M and rocket A moving at constant speed relative to each other. First, an observer in inertial frame M performs the triplet thought experiment, and it is confirmed that the delay in time which elapses in the moving system agrees with the predictions of the STR. However, the delay in time predicted by the STR is observed even in the case when an observer A in rocket A carries out the triplet thought experiment. Before starting movement at constant velocity, rocket A experiences accelerated motion. The coordinate system of rocket A cannot be regarded physically as a stationary system. Even so, observer A observes the delay predicted by the STR. If the previous, traditional interpretation is assumed to be correct, observer A will never observe a delay in time agreeing with the predictions of the STR. To avoid paradox, the previously proposed traditional interpretation must be revised.</p>Koshun Suto
Copyright (c) 2017 Koshun Suto
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2017-03-202017-03-20927710.5539/apr.v9n2p77