http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/issue/feedApplied Physics Research2016-05-25T06:06:18-07:00Lily Greenapr@ccsenet.orgOpen Journal Systems<img style="float: right; padding-left: 20px; padding-right: 20px;" src="/journal/public/site/images/blj/APR-cover.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="405" /><br /><p><em>Applied Physics Research</em> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Canadian Center of Science and Education. The journal focuses on the following topics: acoustics, astrophysics and geophysics, biophysics, computational physics, condensed matter physics, engineering physics, free electron physics, laser and quantum electronics, medical physics, optics, semiconductor physics and devices, solid state physics, space physics.</p><p>The journal provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field. The journal carries original and full-length articles that reflect the latest research and developments in both theoretical and practical aspects of applied physics.</p><p>The journal is published in both print and online versions <strong>bimonthly (February, April, June, August, October, December)</strong>. The online version is free access and download. 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Manuscripts (MS office word format) and supplementary materials can be submitted via the journal’s Online Management System or email to <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p> <p>If you have any questions, please contact the editorial assistant at <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Index/List/Archive</strong></p><ul><li><strong><a href="http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2280457">Bibliography and Index of Geology</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.ebscohost.com/">EBSCOhost</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://scholar.google.com/">Google Scholar</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.lockss.org/">LOCKSS</a></strong></li><li><a href="http://openj-gate.org/"><strong>Open J-Gate</strong></a></li><li><strong><a href="http://pkp.sfu.ca/?q=harvester">PKP Open Archives Harvester</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.proquest.com/en-US/">ProQuest</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.oxbridge.com/SPDCluster/theSPD.asp">Standard Periodical Directory</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/login">Ulrich's</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.udltheses.com/MIDX10100">Universe Digital Library</a></strong></li></ul>http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/57958Is the Lorentz Factor a Probability Function in Superfluid Spacetime?2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Jerome Cantorjocantor1@gmail.com<p class="1Body">A number of studies indicate that spacetime may have properties resembling that of a superfluid, suggesting that percolation theory may provide a useful approach to studying the relationship between velocity and time. By hypothesizing that the effect described by the Lorentz factor may represent an increase in the viscosity of spacetime, it was possible to model time dilation in terms of the movement of a fluid through porous media. Using a random resistor network to equate superfluid percolation with conductance, it is shown that the Lorentz factor corresponds to a probability function involving the phase transition of the superfluid to a normal fluid with insulating properties.</p>2016-04-14T01:04:22-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59128On the Trigonometric Descriptions of Colors2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Jirí Stavekstavek.jiri@seznam.cz<p class="1Body">An attempt is presented for the description of the spectral colors using the standard trigonometric tools in order to extract more information about photons. We have arranged the spectral colors on an arc of the circle with the radius R = 1 and the central angle θ = π/3 when we have defined cos (θ) = λ<sub>380</sub>/λ<sub>760</sub> = 0.5. Several trigonometric operations were applied in order to find the gravity centers for the scotopic, photopic, and mesopic visions. The concept of the center of gravity of colors introduced Isaac Newton. We have postulated properties of the long-lived photons with the new interpretation of the Hubble (Zwicky-Nernst) constant H<sub>0</sub> = 2.748… * 10<sup>-18</sup> kg kg<sup>-1 </sup>s<sup>-1</sup>, the specific mass evaporation rate (SMER) of gravitons from the source mass. The stability of international prototypes of kilogram has been regularly checked. We predict that those standard kilograms due to the evaporation of gravitons lost 8.67 μg kg<sup>-1</sup> century<sup>-1</sup>. The energy of long-lived photons was trigonometrically decomposed into three parts that could be experimentally tested: longitudinal energy, transverse energy and energy of evaporated gravitons. We tested the properties of the long-lived photons with the experimental data published for the best available standard candles: supernovae Type Ia. There was found a surprising match of those experimental data with the model of the long-lived photons. Finally, we have proposed a possible decomposition of the big G (Newtonian gravitational constant) and the small kappa κ (Einsteinian gravitational constant) in order to get a new insight into the mysterious gravitational force and/or the curvature concept.</p>2016-04-19T00:00:00-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/57471Fluorescence and Reflectance Spectroscopy for Early Detection of Different Mycorrhized Plantain Plants2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Wilfried G. Dibidibiwilfried@gmail.comBeaulys Fotsofbeaulys@yahoo.frCasimir Y. Brouycasimir.brou@gmail.comJeremie T. Zoueujeremie.zoueu@inphb.edu.ciAdolphe Zezeyouhe.deba@gmail.comJocelyne Bossonmamaketci1@gmail.com<p class="1Body">Sustainable agriculture with use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) is an emerging farm management that improves crops nutrient and water use efficiency. Decision making on the effect of AMF is still dependent on agronomic diagnosis which is long, tedious, expensive and destructive. This study demonstrates the applicability of proximal fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating and detecting at early stage distinct types of mycorrhized plantain from two cultivars (<em>Musa paradisiaca</em>).</p><p class="1Body">Visible-near infrared (400-1000 nm) reflectance and fluorescence data were collected from control and three levels mycorrhized plants designed in randomized and complete block under greenhouse conditions. Two spectral measurements at a week interval were performed on plant leaves by using an USB spectrometer mounted with an Arduino-based LED driver clip.</p>A new normalized reflectance water NWI5 index shows with Datt5 alone highly significant differences at P<0.001 respectively for Orishele and fhia21 cultivars. dNIRmin920_980, NDVI3 and GI reflectance index are significant at P<0.01. Seven other reflectance and 3 fluorescence indices ANTH, FRF_R and NBI_R are significant at P<0.05. The two first principal components for each cultivar spectral features explaining 94.1 % of variance were used to build predictive classification models. LogitBoost algorithm indicates accuracy of 90.27% on stratified cross-validation and 87.5% on test split. Our results confirm that fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy is a valuable tool for early assessment of mycorrhization success rate evaluation and pattern recognition. They also show promise for the development of non-destructive and cost-effective detectors in monitoring crops under biofertilizers with arbuscular mycorrhizae.2016-04-19T11:01:39-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/57264Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging Based Classification of Ground Coffee Using Multivariate Chemometric Analysis2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Olivier K. Baguibaguikossan@yahoo.frKenneth A. Kadukikenkaduki@yahoo.comEdouard Berrocaledouard.berrocal@forbrf.lth.seJeremie T. Zoueujeremie.zoueu@inphb.edu.ci<p class="1Body">Most commercially available ground coffees are processed from Robusta or Arabica coffee beans. In this work, we report on the potential of Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI) technique for the classification of five types of Robusta and Arabica commercial ground coffee samples (Familial, Belier, Brazil, Colombia and Malaga). This classification is made, here, from the measurement of the extinction coefficient µ<sub>e</sub> and of the optical depth OD by means of SLIPI. The proposed technique offers the advantage of eliminating the light intensity from photons which have been multiply scattered in the coffee solution, leading to an accurate and reliable measurement of µ<sub>e</sub>. Data analysis uses the chemometric techniques of Principal Component Anaysis (PCA) for variable selection and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) for classification. The chemometric model demonstrates the potential of this approach for practical assessment of coffee grades by correctly classifying the coffee samples according to their species.</p>2016-04-19T11:15:12-07:00Copyright (c) Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/58593Fundamental Invalidity of all Michelson-Morley Type Experiments2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Gurcharn S. Sandhugurcharn.sandhu@gmail.com<p class="1Body">The null result of Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) laid the foundation of Relativity and rejected the Newtonian notions of absolute space and time. Logically the null result of any experiment cannot be used to reject the hypothesis under test because the null result could also be caused by invalidity of any of the associated assumptions. The basic design of MMX involves an implicit assumption that changes in the photon flight time in axial and transverse beams, induced by the absolute motion of the setup, can be directly correlated with the corresponding changes in the phase of two beams at the exit end of the beam splitter. We show in this paper that this assumed correlation is fundamentally wrong. It is true that the flight time of a photon between two fixed points on the experimental setup does change with absolute motion of the setup and this has been correctly modeled in the MMX design. The instantaneous phase difference in the light beam, between same two points, does not change with absolute motion of the setup. In the MMX design, phase difference between two fixed points on the setup has been calculated on the basis of time interval alone, without taking into account the shift in corresponding positions on the wave due to the absolute motion of the setup. All modern MMX type experiments with electromagnetic resonators are based on erroneous assumption that the resonant frequency ν is proportional to the relative light speed (c±v) rather than the absolute light speed c.</p>2016-04-23T11:01:39-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59227Speculation on the Number 137 in the Fine-Structure Constant2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Mels Sluyserm.sluyser@planet.nl<p class="1Body">The fine-structure constant (α) is a fundamental physical constant, <em>i.e</em>. the coupling constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. It is important to know why 1/α is approximately equal to the number 137, because this mysterious number very likely forms the link between three very important domains of physics: quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, and relativity. Since the Pythagorean prime number137 equals 4 squared plus 11 squared, it is here speculated that 1/α = 137 perhaps in some mysterious way reflects fundamental properties, for instance the 4 dimensions of Einstein’s space-time and the 11 dimensions of M-theory. Also, the number 4 might be related to the four forces, <em>i</em>.<em>e</em>. the electromagnetic force, the gravitational force and the strong and weak nuclear forces, or perhaps to another 4 and 11 combination of fundamental constants.</p>2016-04-23T00:00:00-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/58596Fractional Variational Problems of Euler-Lagrange Equations with Holonomic Constrained Systems2016-05-24T02:52:13-07:00Eyad Hasan Hasaniyad973@yahoo.com<p class="1Body">In this paper, we examined the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations for Holonomic constrained systems. The Euler-Lagrange equations are derived using the fractional variational problem of Lagrange. In addition, we achieved that the classical results were obtained are agreement when fractional derivatives are replaced with the integer order derivatives. Two physical examples are discussed to demonstrate the formalism.</p>2016-04-23T12:56:28-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59262Predictive Reliability Model of 10G/25G Mesa-Type Avalanche Photodiode Degradation2016-05-25T06:06:18-07:00Jack Jia-Sheng Huangjack.huang@sourcephotonics.comYu-Heng Janjack.huang@sourcephotonics.comH. S. Chenjack.huang@sourcephotonics.comH. S. Changjack.huang@sourcephotonics.comC. J. Nijack.huang@sourcephotonics.comEmin Choujack.huang@sourcephotonics.com<p class="1Body">Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are important building blocks for high-sensivity, low<strong>-</strong>noise receivers deployed in the datacenter, wireless and cloud computing networks. Maintaining stable dark current is a crucial task for overall robust sysem reliability. To achieve design-in low dark current stability, good knowledge of reliability physics is indispensable. In this work, we study the physical mechanisms of 10G/25G mesa-type APD degradation. We institute a predictive reliability model to account for the degradation processes. A comprehensive comparison of APD and IC transistor is also illustrated in terms of dielectric breakdown, mobile ion migration and hot carrier injection. The model suggests that surface leakage current is the dominant factor for the mesa-type APD degradation. Based on the model, it is predicted that highly reliable 10G/25G APD can be achieved with the suppression of weak links at the surface/interface states.</p>2016-04-25T00:00:00-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59067From Mathematical Induction to Discrete Time2016-05-24T02:52:14-07:00David Selkedselke@hotmail.comProof by induction involves a chain of implications in which the stages are well ordered. A chain of cause and effect in nature also involves a chain of implications. For this chain to “imply” or bring about its effects in a logical sense, it also has to be organized into a well ordering of stages (which are the points or quanta of time). This means that time must be quantized rather than continuous. An argument from relativity implies that space is quantized as a consequence.2016-04-26T07:55:47-07:00Copyright (c) Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59495Statistical Study of Solar Forcing of Total Column Ozone Variation Over Three Cities in Kenya2016-05-24T02:52:14-07:00Carolyne M. M. Songacmutambi@cuea.eduJared H. O. Ndedacmutambi@cuea.eduGilbert Oumacmutambi@cuea.eduIn this study, a statistical analysis between three solar activity indices (SAI) namely; sunspot number (ssn), F10.7 index (sf) and Mg II index (mg) and total column ozone (TCO) time series over three cities in Kenya namely; Nairobi (1.17º S; 36.46º E), Kisumu (0.03º S; 34.45º E) and Mombasa (4.02º S; 39.43º E) for the period 1985 - 2011 are considered. Pearson and cross correlations, linear and multiple regression analyses are performed. All the statistical analyses are based on 95% confidence level. SAI show decreasing trend at significant levels with highest decrease in international sunspot number and least in Mg II index. TCO are highly correlated with each other at (0.936< r < 0.955, p < 0.001). SAI are also highly correlated with each other at (0.941< r < 0.976, p < 0.001) and are significantly positively correlated with TCO over the study period except Mg II index at Kisumu. TCO and SAI have correlations at both long and short lags. At all the cities, F10.7 index has an immediate impact and Mg II index has a delayed impact on TCO. A linear relationship exists between the two variables in all the cities. An increase in TCO of about 2 – 3 % (Nairobi), 1 – 2% (Kisumu) and 3 – 4 % (Mombasa) is attributed to solar activity indices. The multiple correlation coefficients and significant levels obtained show that 3 – 5% of the TCO at Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa can be predicted by the SAI.2016-04-30T00:00:00-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/58343Evolving Null Horizons Near an Isolated Black Hole2016-05-24T02:52:14-07:00K. L. Duggalyq8@uwindsor.caTotally geodesic null hypersurfaces have been widely used as models of time-independent event and isolated black hole horizons. However, in reality black hole being surrounded by a local mass distribution there is significant difference in the structure of the surrounding region of isolated black holes. In this paper, we use metric conformal symmetry which provides a class of a family of totally umbilical null hypersurfaces (Theorem 4), supported by a physical model and an example of time-dependent evolving null horizons (see Definition 6) conformally related to <br />an isolated black hole. We establish an interrelation between the spacelike dynamical horizons (see Definition 7), isolated and evolving null horizons. Finally we propose further study on null geometry and physics of the surface closer to an isolated horizon.2016-05-01T09:22:51-07:00Copyright (c) Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59673The Fabrication of the Infrared CdSe Doped With Cu Photodetector2016-05-24T02:52:14-07:00Hassan H. Mohammeddr.hassanh50@gmail.comSalwan K. J. AL-Anidr.hassanh50@gmail.comIn this work, the implementation method of the CdSe doped with Cu (CdSe: Cu) photodetector is presented. This detector is prepared by vacuum evaporation of CdSe films on glass substrate followed by vacuum annealing under an argon atmosphere for doping with copper. This detector is found, for the first time, to cover a wide range of the infrared besides the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This finding of the wavelength tuning is due to the localized energy states of copper atoms inside the band gap of the CdSe. This tuning is compared with recent work in the corresponding colloidal CdSe-ZnS core shell quantum dots and with the quantum well (QWIR) and quantum dots (QDIR) infrared detectors. The major significance of this developed detector is in its synthesis simplicity and its fabrication processes costs in comparison with that of the (QWIR) and (QDIR) detectors. The structural analysis results demonstrated that the vacuum annealing in competition with the doping concentration improves significantly the film structure. Better crystalline structure was reported at 5 wt% of Cu concentration and at annealing temperature of 350 ºC. Besides the measured detectivity at room temperature is D*=2.31×108 cm Hz1/2W-1. This value approaches the detectivity of the state of art mercury cadmium telluride (MCT). This result paves the way for further investigations and improvements.2016-05-07T00:00:00-07:00Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/58681Beam Species Characteristics of High Current Ion Source for EAST Neutral Beam Injector2016-05-24T02:52:14-07:00Y Wangywang@ipp.ac.cnZ M Liulzliang@ipp.ac.cnJ Y Yanlzliang@ipp.ac.cnL Z Lianglzliang@ipp.ac.cnC D Hulzliang@ipp.ac.cn<p class="1Body">During the experiment of high-current ion source on EAST NBI test bed, the Doppler shift spectroscopy (DSS) is used to measure the hydrogen alpha lines emitted by excited atoms. The multi-peak Gaussian fitting gives the distribution of the original DSS spectra data, the beam energy and the fractions of the beam species can be calculated for different operation parameters of ion source. It is known that the proton ratio increases with the arc power, the beam energy and the perveance, this phenomenon can provide a reference for higher power neutral beam extraction. According to the experimental results, the maximum proton ratio is near 78% under the arc power is about 65kW. This result indicates that the high-current ion source extraction match the design requirements.</p>2016-05-16T21:18:54-07:00Copyright (c) Applied Physics Researchhttp://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/59218Speed of Light as an Emergent Property of the Fabric2016-05-24T02:52:55-07:00Dirk J. Ponsdirk.pons@canterbury.ac.nzArion D. PonsArion.pons@gmail.comAiden J. Ponsaidenpons@gmail.com<p class="1Body"><strong>Problem</strong>- The theory of Relativity is premised on the constancy of the speed of light (c) in-vacuo. While no empirical evidence convincingly shows the speed to be variable, nonetheless from a theoretical perspective the invariance is an assumption. <strong>Need-</strong> It is possible that the evidence could be explained by a different theory. <strong>Approach</strong>- A non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, the Cordus particule theory, is applied to identify the causes of variability in the fabric density, and then show how this affects the speed of light. <strong>Findings</strong>- Under these assumptions the speed of light is variable (VSL), being inversely proportional to fabric density. This is because the discrete fields of the photon interact dynamically with the fabric and therefore consume frequency cycles of the photon. The fabric arises from aggregation of fields from particles, which in turn depends on the proximity and spatial distribution of matter. Results disfavour the universal applicability of the cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. <strong>Originality</strong>- The work proposes causal mechanisms for VSL, which have otherwise been challenging to ascertain. Uniquely, this theory identifies fabric density as the dependent variable. In contrast, other VSL models propose that c varies with time or some geometric-like scale, but struggle to provide plausible reasons for that dependency. This theory also offers a conceptually simply way to reconcile the refraction of light in both gravitational situations and optical materials.</p>2016-05-24T02:51:54-07:00Copyright (c) Applied Physics Research