The Use of Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy and Laser – Raman Spectroscopy in Bladder Malignancy Diagnosis, A comparative Study

Essam G. Ahmed, Nafie A. Al-Muslet, Mubarak M. Ahmed, M. A. Moharam, Waleed Musaad

Abstract


Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Africa. It takes several days to reach a diagnosis using
histological examinations of specimens obtained by endoscope, which increases the medical expense.
Spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues has received considerable attention due to its sensitivity to
biochemical variations in the samples. The present study investigated the use of FTIR and laser Raman
spectrometer as diagnose tools of bladder cancer. Fourteen bladder samples were collected from 7 patients
during surgery from different hospitals without any pretreatment. FTIR, with a ceramic source, was used to
differentiate between normal and cancerous bladder tissues via the change in the spectra of these samples. The
investigations detected obvious spectroscopic change in the proteins (1650, 1550 cm-1), lipids (2925, 2850 cm-1)
and nucleic acid (1080, 1236 cm-1).
With FT Raman spectrometer supplied with Nd:YAG laser, as an excitation light source, samples were studied
and significant differences between the normal and cancerous bladder tissues were found around Raman shifts of
1650 cm-1, 1440 cm-1 , 1270 cm-1 and 1080 cm-1 . The comparison between the two techniques showed that
Raman spectroscopy holds much promising as a rapid, sensitive, nondestructive method, and easy to use as an
alternative method for identification and diagnosis of bladder cancerous tissues.


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Applied Physics Research   ISSN 1916-9639 (Print)   ISSN 1916-9647 (Online)

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